Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: C:\Users\jami\Desktop\images\logo.pngDescription: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

Home      Articles Archive         Editorial Board         Article Submission         Guide for Authors         Advisory Editorial Board        Contact Us         Indexing


In press


Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).




Dataset on the Assessments the Rate of Changing of Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature of Surface Water, Case Study: California, USA

Esmaiel Salami, Marjan Salari, Solmaz Nikbakht Sheibani, Maryam HosseiniKheirabad and Ehsan Teymouri

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 843-852 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Temperature affects aquatic organisms in many ways. Body temperature most aquatic organisms are the same as the surrounding water and fluctuate. Most aquatic organisms are limited to living in a temperature range, and when they are very low or high, they die. Temperature affects metabolism, reproduction and emergence. Temperature also affects the amount of photosynthesis of aquatic plants, the base of the aquatic food web. Pollutants can be toxic at higher temperatures. Most aquatic organisms need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is not part of the molecule of water, it is oxygen gas. Oxygen enters the water through the rain. Turbulence and wind through photosynthesis of aquatic plants. The body absorbs oxygen through structures such as cartilage or skin. Water-soluble ecosystems are stable drives. In the present study, temperature changes trending and dissolved oxygen concentration have been investigated. After that, the speed of temperature changes in degree and dissolved oxygen concentration in mg/L were calculated in each year. To achieve these terms, as can be seen in equation 1, the average of temperature and dissolved oxygen in one year compared with the same items in other years. An 11-year period of time (2007-2017) was considered. The result showed that the average value of DO changing rate in the area of study is equal to -0.138  and for T the average rate of change is equal to +0.02 ºC/y.


Keywords: Ecosystem, Dissolved oxygen, Temperature, Surface water, Photosynthesis





Strengthening Environment Resistance for Improving Quality Growth

 Djoko Pitoyo, Nataliya Nikolaevna Seraya, Rustem Adamovich Shichiyakh, E. Laxmi Lydia, K. Shankar

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 853-856 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In line with the development of the digital economy, various environment resources at this time can be utilized with the speed of distribution and increasingly good quality. The fast and dynamic digital economy penetration has shaped the landscape of the digital economy in Indonesia to help the environment. Nowadays, Indonesia does not only cover the demand services for environment, e-commerce and financial technology (Fintech), but they also provide internet of things (IoT) services. The projection of digital economy development in Indonesia is shown by the growth of value of e-commerce environment by 1,625 percent to USD 130 billion in the 2013-2020 period. Since economics is an open system, the three main processes (extraction, processing, or production and consumption) all involve the generation of waste that is ultimately disposed of to the environment (air, water or land). Excessive waste in inappropriate locations and time will cause biological changes in the environment, which in turn damages animals, plants and ecosystems. If environmental damage to human health or adversely affect human welfare, economists believe that economic pollution has occurred.


Keywords: Digital economy, Economic resources, National industry, Economic growth





Study of Different Types of Experience Competencies to Enhance the Environment

Ida Ayu Nuh Kartini, Herningsih, Samsul Susilawati, E. Laxmi Lydia, K. Shankar

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 857-860 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: As a major aspect of an activity to make the experience of customer into the organization for improving the integration of the environment a phased and organized methodology is needed. Around the globe with scores of customers on the basis of working, the REAL world methodology is used. At “customer experience" when the operation and company become proficient the structure will "demystify" the end state and activities that should be able to recognize.   


Keywords: Customer experience; Integration; REAL world; Organized methodology





Application of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to Optimizing COD Removal from Fresh Leachate using Combination of Ultrasound and Ultraviolet

Neamatollah Jaafarzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Zarghi, Mobina Salehin, Aliakbar Roudbari, Amir Zahedi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 861-869 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains highly concentrated organic substances which must be treated before discharged into aqueous environments. This study was done to optimize the removal of COD from fresh landfill leachate using combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet. The sample of fresh landfill leachate was obtained from a municipal landfill, and its COD was measured. Box-Behnken design was applied to analyze and optimize the removal of COD by different variables, including pH, contact time, ultrasound frequency and UV intensity. Based on this, 29 samples and three replications were tested. The analysis of variance indicated quadratic model was significant for removal of COD. According to the model, the removal efficiency of COD was obtained 92.1 % at optimal conditions (pH at 9.2, contact time of 54min, ultrasound frequency of 54 kHz and UV intensity of 45w). The removal efficiency of COD was 91.8 % in these conditions which agrees well with the predicted response value. The BOD5/COD ratio increased to 0.38 after treatment. Also, the values of average oxidation state (AOS) and carbon oxidation state (COS) increased to +1.9 and 3.49, respectively. This means that the treated leachate was much easier to biodegrade than the initial leachate.


Keywords: COD, Leachate, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, BBD





Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fish Scale Extract of Cyprinus carpio and its Decolorization Activity of Textile Dyes

Bharathi Vadivelu, Arun Meyyazhagan, Sampathkumar Palanisamy, Vijaya Anand Arumugam, Hesam Kamyab, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Krishna Kumar Yadav

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 870-874 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Cyprinus carpio fish scale extract to de-colorization of textile dyes. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, FT-IR and SEM analysis. The reaction mixture turned to a brownish gray color after 5 hrs of incubation and exhibits an absorbance peak around 450 nm characteristic of AgNPs. The SEM analysis showed AgNPs were pure and polydisperse and the size were ranging from 200 nm. The approach of biosynthesis seems to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of AgNPs synthesis. Dye degrading efficiency of AgNPs was assayed against azo dyes. At the end of 24 hrs AgNPs showed 48.38% of degradation. As the days of incubation increases from 1 day to 7 days, the degradation efficiency was also increased from 48.38% to 93.54% at the end of 7th day of incubation. Further, the FT-IR results confirmed that, the complex, toxic azo dyes are degraded into simple, non-toxic compounds.


Keywords: Fish scale, Cyprinus carpio, Silver nanoparticle, Textile dye, Decolorization





An Indicator Framework Approach on Manufacturing Water Assessment towards Sustainable Water Demand Management

Nurul Sa’dah Bahar, Zainura Zainon Noor, Azmi Aris, Nurul Ashikeen Binti Kamaruzaman

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 875-883 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Population growth, industrialization, urbanization and change of life style have increased global water demand. Although agricultural water demand accounts as the largest overall user, emerging economics causes industrial and domestic water demand to increase tremendously especially in developing countries. One sector that contributes to rapid industrial demand is manufacturing sector. Despite many assessment methods being used in the past, it has been seen that measurement of manufacturing water use performance could only be done for specific manufacturing factory or specific industries. Due to lack of a holistic framework towards assessment water performance in any given manufacturing factory, this paper introduces an indicator-framework called Malaysia Manufacturing Industry Water Benchmarking System (MIWABS). This indicator framework was developed based on relevant sets of indicators arranged under sustainability pillars criteria. MIWABS uses stakeholder-driven approach whereby the established indicators and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) assigning weightage were done through workshops and questionnaires. Rubber glove and semiconductor industries were chosen as demonstration study to validate the indicator-framework. The results highlighted the importance to emphasize on recycling water in manufacturing facilities. Besides that, manufacturing factories shall also explore other water alternatives such as groundwater and river to cater for their factory and production needs to reduce the dependency of potable water by public water operator. It is hoped that MIWABS can give input and policy direction as part of water demand management strategies in Malaysia.


Keywords: Manufacturing water use, Water demand management, Indicator-framework, Sustainability






A Review of COVID-19: The Main Ways of Transmission and some Prevention Solutions, Clinical Symptoms, more Vulnerable Human Groups, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Nasrin Beheshtkhoo, Mohammad Hassan Alipour, Mostafa Shafiee, Reza Nemati, Reza Baghbani, Farahnaz Behzad, Ali Jangjou, Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani, Mohsen Mehrabi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 884-893 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: COVID-19 is a virus that causes acute respiratory syndrome. Although it is less deadly than other members of its family, i.e. SARS and MERS, its extremely rapid transmission rate has become a widespread concern today. Airborne droplets, environmental surfaces, nasal mucosa, urine and fecal samples are among the routes for the transmission of this virus. Both temperature and humidity factors affect the viability of the virus and its mortality rate. Increasing the ambient temperature makes the virus unstable, while lowering the temperature contributes to its stability. Due to the fact that the main route for the transmission of this virus is the particles containing the virus, observing the social distance of at least one meter, using masks as well as air purification systems can reduce the risk of virus transmission to some extent. This contagious virus has made life difficult for everyone in the community, especially pregnant women, children and the elderly. This viral infection can be diagnosed in many ways, including laboratory tests, molecular tests, the chest X-ray and CT scan. It is worth noting that chest CT scan is more sensitive than other methods and is used as the first line of diagnosis. Despite numerous efforts, no definitive cure has yet been found and isolation of those involved is recognized as first-line treatment. The treatments so far can be divided into three categories: general treatments, pharmacological treatments, and diet. General treatments involve isolation, mask use, oxygen therapy, room ventilation and more. Because of the rapid spread and the many challenges that this viral infection has created, scientists have used many of the drugs that were previously used to treat the influenza, malaria, AIDS, etc., some of which have been used to treat the viral infection. It should be noted that some of these drugs were very effective on some people's bodies. Some of these drugs were even used for pregnant mothers. A proper diet and the use of certain vitamins such as iron, zinc, vitamins A, B, C, E can also be effective in preventing and treating this viral infection. Many efforts to develop a vaccine against this virus infection began about two weeks after the outbreak and the attempts to reach this goal continues.


Keywords: COVID-19, SARS, MERS, Diagnosis, Treatment





Effect of Pretreatment of Biosorbent in Biosorption: A Comparative Study

Ariani Dwi Astuti, Khalida Muda 

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 894-899 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The textile industry generates large amounts of wastewater with strong BOD/COD and salt load, which are often seen in dark colour. An alternative treatment for this type of wastewater is the biosorption, where it involves a passive uptake of both the organic and inorganic compounds, including dye or its derivatives, using non-growing/living microbial mass. Biosorbent pretreatment, autoclaving techniques and combined with the chemical processes, such as acidification, were discussed. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used for researching and developing the effect of pH, contact time, dosage, and biosorbent size in the biosorption process in synthetic textile wastewater using Bjerkandera adusta. When the pH was 4, and the contact time, biosorbent dosage and biosorbent size were 90 minutes, 3000 mg/L and 0.4 mm, respectively, the optimal removal circumstance was able to be verified, at 53.55%, and 81.3% of colour removals were demonstrated through the experimental procedure. This leads to the high acceptance of the experimental findings and model forecast. In the optimisation of experimental parameters, the quadratic model estimated both R2 and R2adj correlation coefficients quite satisfactorily as 0.988, 0.977, 0.926, and 0.783, respectively. It is more effective to combine the autoclaving technique with chemical processes than adopting just the autoclaving method. The two-sided t-test was used to identify any significant variations in the preparation techniques of biosorbents using p < 0.05. The biosorbent study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and characterisation of surface functional group using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the results obtained. 


Keywords: Bjerkandera adusta, Synthetic textile wastewater, Biosorbent, Response surface methodology, Colour removal efficiency




Mathematical Modelling for Predicting Rejection of Trace Organic Contaminants by the Nanofiltration Membrane NF270

Hai Quang Dang

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 900-907 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This study implemented multiple linear regression model to predict rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) by the nanofiltration (NF) membrane NF270. Multiple regression analysis by the Statgraphics Centurion software were used to find an optimal mathematical modeling that combines interactions between molecular width, molecular height, molecular length, molecular weight and log D of TrOCs for predicting rejection. The result shows a relatively good agreement between the predicted rejection and the observed rejection and an acceptable R-squared correlation coefficient were found (R2 = 91.42 %) for the best model. In conclusion, a unified general multiple linear regression equation was able to predict rejections of TrOCs during nanofiltration with the explanatory variables of molecular width, molecular height, molecular length and molecular weight. Moreover, the present approach is a basis to continue investigation using multiple regression analysis techniques for understanding rejection of TrOCs by the NF membranes.


Keywords: Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), Nanofiltration, Multiple linear regression, Mathematical modeling, Rejection





Investigation of Thermal Properties of Normal Weight Concrete for Different Strength Classes

Hamed Rezaei Talebi, Brit Anak Kayan, Iman Asadi, Zahiruddin Fitri Bin Abu Hassan

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 908-914 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Concrete is a common construction material which its thermal properties influence on energy consumption of buildings, significantly. The main aim of this study is to investigate the thermal properties of normal weight concrete for different strength classes and the performance of normal weight concrete was measurement by studying the mechanical, physical and thermal properties. Also, develop the correlations between thermal properties with mechanical and physical properties. The results showed that the thermal properties of concrete would be changed based on its different strength classes. The results indicated that the thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of normal weight concrete with a compressive strength in the range of 15 to 62 MPa are in the range of 1.6 to 3.2 W/m.K, 0.92 to 1.16 kJ/kg.K and 0.69 to 1.34 (×10-6 m2 /s), respectively.


Keywords: Normal weight concrete, Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity, Specific heat capacity





Microbial Fuel Cell: An Emerging Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Generation

 Karan Singh and Dharmendra

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 915-924 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are enticing surprising attention due to their dual functions of energy generation and waste removal from wastewaters. Microbial fuel cells use microbial metabolism to convert biochemical metabolic energy into electrical current by using different substrates. Microbes are fed in the anode with the substrate (e.g., domestic, industrial, leachates, etc.) to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells. It provides an opportunity for the feasible production of energy from bio-degradable organic matters while treating wastewater. In recent years, despite the extensive efforts to improve the efficiency of the cell, energy production is still low, especially in scaled-up systems. However, the construction cost of microbial fuel cells is relatively higher than fossil fuel prices, so it makes doubtful that power generation can ever be competitive with existent energy generation approaches but improvements in power densities, reductions in materials costs may make microbial fuel cells real-world for electricity generation. In-depth review of literature, the study summarizes the role of microorganisms and substrate in the anode chamber. It includes types, components, mechanism and operation of microbial fuel cells. This review highlights various parameters affecting microbial fuel cells, current challenges and applications in the production of electrical energy in a sustainable way.


Keywords: Biodegradable; Metabolic energy; Microbial fuel cell; Nutrient removal; Wastewater treatment





Copyright © Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

Dorma Trading, Est. Publishing Manager