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Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).




Integrated Approach as Sustainable Environmental Technique for Managing Construction Waste: A Review

Elamaran Manoharan, Norazli Othman, Roslina Mohammad, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan and Siti Uzairiah Mohd Tobi

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 560-566 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The construction industry was reported as a major consumer of natural resources worldwide. Almost 60% of natural resources consumed by this industry have caused a lot of environmental impacts to humans and the environment. Among the impacts were disruption of human water sources, changes in biological ecosystem and disruption of food supply chain among biological factors. Countries around the world have enforced several laws and regulations. Apart from that, waste management technologies were formulated by government agencies and the world’s researchers were among initiatives to minimise the waste generation rate. Several technologies, such as recycling and recovery technologies were highlighted to be very efficient in minimising the waste accumulation rate. This paper discussed an integrated concept for managing construction waste in a sustainable manner. The integrated approach has adopted the reuse method, central sorting facilities, recycling facilities, thermal treatment facilities and disposal facilities. Implementation of these integrated approaches was able to save the world’s raw materials and natural energy source as well as reducing the impacts of pollution to the environment.


Keywords: Waste management facilities, Pollution, Sustainable




Treatment of Landfill Leachate using Granular Multi-Stage Anaerobic Reactor: Optimisation through Response Surface Methodology

Aida Batrisyia Jasni, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Mohd Fadhil Md Din and Nithiya Arumugam

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 567-572 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: One of the most hazardous sources of pollution these days is landfill leachate. This harmful wastewater is not only affecting the environment, but also the health of beings surrounding the landfills. Numerous treatments have been used to treat this recalcitrant wastewater; however, anaerobic treatment has been in focus in recent years. In this study, we investigated the interactive effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD), leachate percentage and pH on the performance of a granular multi-stage anaerobic reactor (GMSAR) treating landfill leachate. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilised to project the interaction effects of the operating conditions of the treatment system in terms of COD removal and biogas yield. The optimum region of the GMSAR was acquired at influent COD of 1239 mg/L, a leachate percentage of 14.2% and a pH of 7.3. These variables resulted in a 71.9% COD removal and 65.9mL/d of biogas yield. The percentage of leachate and COD influent resulted respectively in the most effective parameters on the COD removal and biogas yield of GMSAR.


Keywords: Landfill leachate, Anaerobic treatment, Multi-stage anaerobic reactor, Response surface methodology, Biogas yield






A Heterogeneous Relationships between Urbanization, Energy Consumption, Economic Growth on Environmental Degradation: Panel Study of Malaysia and Selected ASEAN+3 Countries

Ali Umar Ahmad, Suraya Ismail, Aminu Hassan Jakada, Ibrahim Sambo Farouq, Atiku Abubakar Muhammad, Umar Aliyu Mustapha, Ahmad Tijjani Abdullahi, Aminu Muhammad Fagge

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 573-581 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This paper aims to analyse the association among urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption and environmental degradation based on estimates in the context of second-generation techniques. A Malaysian economy and selected ASEAN+3 were estimated using Pesaran (1999) Pooled Mean Grouped (PMG) and a panel dynamic common correlated effects (DCCE) technique pioneered by Pesaran and Chudik (2015) that measures a model of error correction (EC) which is resilient to cross-sectional dependency and co-integration. Evidence from the findings shows that the main actors or driving forces leading to a high level of environmental degradation are urbanization, economic growth, and energy consumption for Malaysia and selected ASEAN+3 nations. Also found was the existence of one-way causality running from economic growth to environmental degradation. It also indicates another one-way causality running from square of economic growth to environmental degradation. Whereas, a bidirectional causality is found between urbanization and environmental degradation, as well as a feedback causality among energy consumption and environmental degradation.


Keywords: Urbanization, environmental degradation, Energy consumption, Economic growth, Heterogeneous panel, Malaysia and Selected






Stability and Super Stability of Fuzzy Approximately Ring Homomorphisms and Fuzzy Approximately Ring Derivations

N. Eghbali

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 582-588 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In this paper, we establish the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of ring homomorphisms and ring derivations in the uniform case on fuzzy Banach algebras.


Keywords: Fuzzy normed space; Approximately ring homomorphism; Stability




Analyses the Effect of Monetary Policy Transmission on the Inequality in OECD Countries

 Mohammad Farajnezhad, Suresh A/L Ramakrishnan, Mani Shehni Karam Zadeh

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 589-596 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The aim of this article is to analyze the inequality impacts of monetary policy transmission in OECD countries’ economy from 2001 to 2017. Panel regression model has been applied for the hypotheses test. Information gathering has been based on the country's basic information, i.e the data required for research are generally derived from the library method, using the World Bank website. The econometric method used in this research, is Generalized Torque Method. Dependent variable Gini coefficient index is considered as an indicator of income inequality and independent variables of monetary transfer mechanisms include interest rates, liquidity, exchange rates, the gold price, the legal reserves of the central bank and the banks' debt to the central bank. The results show that the interest impact of monetary transfer mechanism at the Gini coefficient as an indifference index in OECD countries is positive and insignificant (probability is 0.18) with a coefficient of 0.004 and it shows that raising interest rates will increase the inequality in these countries. Additionally, the effect of the capital market on the inequality is also positive with a coefficient of 0.001 and a significant probability of 0.002. It shows the positive effect of bank deposits on income inequality.


Keywords: Monetary Policy Transmission, Inequality, OECD countries





Influence of Adsorption Process Parameters on the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) from Wastewater: A Review

Sunil Rajoriya, Ahlaam Haquiqi, Bhawna Chauhan, Girish Tyagi, Avdesh Singh Pundir, Ajay Kumar Jain

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 597-603 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In recent years, the release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment has become a major issue. Numerous socio-economic problems are caused due to the presence of several heavy metals in wastewater. Hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is one of the major heavy metal present in the wastewater which comes from various industries such as fertilizers, pesticides, metal cleaning, dyes and pigment, especially in tannery industry. Numerous methods have been employed for the removal of Cr (VI) from wastewater. Adsorption has been reported as a suitable method due to its high efficiency, low cost, generation of minimum chemical sludge and reusability of the prepared adsorbents. In this review, various adsorption process parameters such as solution pH, adsorbent dosage, temperature and initial Cr (VI) concentration have been reviewed on the removal efficiency of Cr (VI) from wastewater. The percentage removal of Cr (VI) strongly depends upon pH of the solution and the optimum pH range was found to be 1.0-4.0.  The reusability of the used adsorbents has also been discussed. It is comparatively good for practical applications. It can be concluded that the most of the adsorbents have good regeneration capability. This review paper suggested that the adsorption process parameters had an important role on the removal efficiency of Cr (VI) from wastewater.


Keywords: Adsorption, Wastewater treatment, Hexavalent chromium, Reusability





Yttria Stabilized Zirconia Thin Film as Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrolyte: Temperature Dependent Structures and Morphology

N. F. M. Rahimi, Sathiabama T. Thirugnana, S. K. Ghoshal

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 604-609 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Fuel Cell is an electrochemical cell that supports clean and alternative energy that is mushrooming nowadays. Being a device of clean energy production, highly efficient solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are increasing in demands. It converts the chemical energy into electrical energy in an environmentally-friendly way following green technology route. The SOFCs are one type of technology that has great promise to improve energy efficiency and to provide the society with clean and abundant energy. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is used as the electrolyte in SOFC wherein its synthesis with controlled properties is important to obtain the highest energy efficiency. The overall characteristics of the YSZ thin-film electrolyte in the SOFC are determined by its structures and morphologies. Based on these factors, a series of YSZ thin films were deposited on the sapphire wafer substrate by the dip-coating method and sintered in the temperature range of 900 – 1500 ˚C. The temperature dependent structural and morphological attributes of such thin films were determined and the prepared samples were characterized using XRD, AFM and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the samples revealed the change in the crystallinity and phase, with an increase in the sintering temperatures while a tetragonal structure was observed at 1300 ˚C. Furthermore, the Raman spectral analyses supported the XRD results. The AFM morphology analysis of the thin films showed an increase in the grain size from 132.25 to 995.2 nm. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the structures and morphological attributes of these films may be useful for achieving high ionic conductivity required for an efficient SOFC construction.


Keywords: SOFC, Green technology, YSZ electrolyte, Thin film, Dip-coating, Structures, Morphology





Antiviral Pneumonia to Treat Influenza Virus

Sargol Mazraedoost, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Ahmad Gholami

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 610-620 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Influenza, an infectious disease of the respiratory system, represents a tremendous sized burden for public health. Influenza was once found not through a direct learn about the disorder in humans, but as a substitute from research on animal diseases. An ailment that can resemble the frequent cold, influenza packs a powerful and on occasion deadly punch. As numerous as half-a-million people around the world die yearly from flu. The perpetrator is a virus that mutates to steer clear of our immune systems, leaving vaccines and remedies scrambling to preserve up. In many years, a mutation creates a pathogen that is specifically nasty, ensuing in pandemic flu. Influenza is an acute respiratory disorder brought on by using the influenza A or B virus. It often happens in outbreaks and epidemics worldwide, frequently in the course of the iciness season. Significant numbers of influenza virus particles exist in the respiratory secretions of infected persons so that infection can be transmitted via sneezing and coughing using large-particle droplets. The imply duration of influenza virus shedding in immunocompetent adult patients is around 5 days but may also proceed for up to 10 days or further mostly in children, elderly adults, patients with chronic illnesses, and immunocompromised hosts. Influenza generally starts with the abrupt onset of high-grade fever, myalgia, headache, and malaise. These manifestations are attended by way of signs of respiratory tract ailments such as non-productive cough, sore throat, and nasal discharge. After an ordinary course, influenza can affect different organs such as the lungs, brain, and heart more than it can affect the respiratory tract and motive hospitalization. The excellent way to stop influenza is to administer annual vaccinations. For centuries, new strains of influenza have emerged to produce human pandemics, inflicting massive illness, death, and disruption. There have been four flu pandemics within the earlier hundred a long time. Throughout this time, globalization processes, globalisation processes, alongside advances in medicine and epidemiology, have altered the way these pandemics are experienced.


Keywords: Pandemic; Influenza; Human; Infectious disease






Role of Short Term Finance for Growing the Business Regarding Environmental Activities

Sri Utami Ady, Marina V. Borovitskaya, Hoai Fyong Nguen, Abshor Marantika, Ruly Artha

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 621-624 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract:  For a small time period generally shorter than a year the financing needs can be consider as short term finance to help improve the environmental situation. It can also refer as working capital financing in business regarding environment. In to the business when it happen uneven flow of cash or due to seasonal pattern of business this short term finance is required. Only particular one time order type business is finances at a time. 


Keywords: Small time; Business; Invemtory; Uneven flow




Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Modeling of Cavitation Mechanism by Ultrasonic Irradiation for Cyanobacteria Growth Inhibition

Esmaeel Salami Shahid , Marjan Salari , Majid Ehteshami , Solmaz Nikbakht Sheibani

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 625-633 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Cyanobacteria produce toxins that affect animals and human’s health. Therefore, modeling concentration of this type of algae is necessary. This study employs artificial neural network (ANN) modeling method to simulate the cavitation mechanism by ultrasonic irradiation on cyanobacteria concentration variation in treated water. The proposed model used parameters such as power intensity, frequency and the time of ultrasound irradiation as input variables. The results showed that proportional value of cyanobacteria concentration to the initial concentration (C/C0). The data obtained from a laboratory experiment and number of data in the existed study was not enough for ANN modeling, the data expanded to 7280 data sets from the original 28 data sets obtained by the experimental study. A feed-forward learning algorithm with 20 neurons in the first (hidden) layer and one neuron in the second layer was developed with the MSE value equals to 2.72×10-5. Model results were used for predicting the cell density value. Furthermore, a novel formulation was presented to correlate the C/C0 values with the cell density. To verify the accuracy of the ANN and developed equation, the value of cell density was predicted by studies performed by other researchers. In this case the MSE was 1.55×10-4.


Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Cyanobacteria, Modeling, Ultrasonic irradiation, Water Quality





Risk Characterization and Quantification of Medical Waste in Qom Province

Y. Ghafuri, R. Shiri, N. Jafari. Afzal, H. Izanloo

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 634-638 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The term healthcare waste includes all the waste generated within healthcare facilities, research centers, and laboratories of medical procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine the the quantities and composition of waste generation and evaluate the hospital waste management and hazard analysis by preliminary risk analysis (PRA) in all hospitals in Qom province, Iran. Results showed that the production of sharp, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, chemical, pathological, and heavy metals wastes is estimated to be 3.6%, 2.5%, 0.18%, 0.11%, 0.3%, and 0.01% of total wastes, respectively. Analysis and partitioning of heavy metal and cytotoxic waste was reported in this study. Events such as segregation and color-coded containers for pharmaceutical waste, especially cytotoxic waste and heavy metals, and unsupervised waste offsite transport in a hospital without safe facilities were identified as high-risk events. In addition, other events were identified as medium risk. Administrative procedures, maintenance, training treatment plant operators, and integrating training with public education on risks of healthcare waste are among the other issues that should be considered in providing strategies in hospital waste management.


Keywords: Qom; Waste; Risk; Assessment; Hospital





Management of a Sustainable Development of the Oil and Gas Sector in the Context of Digitalization

Alexey I. Shinkevich, Damir R. Baygildin, Ekaterina L. Vodolazhskaya

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 639-645 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The oil and gas sector is characterized by a high level of polluting emissions, which confirms the need for the development of a management mechanism in the field of automation and greening of technological processes. Thus, in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution, digital transformation is an integral element of sustainable development. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for assessing the sustainable development of the oil and gas sector of the Russian economy, taking into account aspects of digitalization. The methodological base covers the method of systematization of the collected information, which made it possible to track the dynamics of changes in the environmental and economic indicators of the oil and gas sector and in the mining industry as a whole; modeling method (including the correlation-regression method and the method of principal components), which determined the mathematical relationships between indicators of sustainable development and digital transformation of the oil and gas sector; forecasting method, which presents scenarios of changes in the level of environmental friendliness of the oil and gas sector. As a result, a linear regression model is proposed that reflects the dependence of emissions of harmful substances by mining enterprises on the financial leverage ratio and determines the necessitates to increase the ratio in order to reduce harmful emissions; alternatives options of forecasting the level of harmful emissions by the mining industry of the Russian economy are developed; to assess the sustainable development of the oil and gas sector of the Russian economy in the context of digitalization, an integrated sustainable development index is elaborated through the use of the factor analysis tool. The factors identified by the principal component analysis enable to evaluate the influence of digitalization on the sustainable development of the oil and gas sector of the Russian economy. In addition, correlation coefficients between each selected factor and each variable were pairwise estimated. Based on the simulation results, interdependencies of two key aspects of the study - the sustainable development of the oil and gas sector and its digital transformation are observed. The practical significance of the obtained model lies in the possibility of its application in order to predict the sustainable development of the oil and gas sector in Russia, taking into account the industry digitalization trend. The results of this study can be taken into account in strategic documents and programs for the development of the oil and gas sector and digital transformation of the industrial complex of the Russian Federation.


Keywords: Oil and gas sector, Sustainable development, Digital technologies, Factor analysis, Sustainable development index





Financial Distress Prediction across Firms

Ali Akbar Rafatnia, Suresh A/L Ramakrishnan, Dewi Fariha Binti Abdullah, Fazel Mohammadi Nodeh, Mohammad Farajnezhad

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 646-651 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: One of the most important events in a firm’s life is financial distress, which can propel sectors into financial and sustainable growth problems. Moreover, independent variables in the background of financial distress are accounting ratios, which are extracted from financial statements and macroeconomic variables that are mostly beyond the control of a firm or sector. The current study analysed the information related to a sample of 300 public Iranian companies, during the periods of 2000-2007 and 2009-2016. Logistic regression and decision trees were applied to the prediction of financial distress. It was found that the profitability, liquidity, leverage, interest rate, cash flow, accruals, and GDP were statistically significant in distinguishing distressed from non-distressed firms across sectors. The obtained results showed that the predictive performance of a DT model was more successful than the other model.


Keywords: Prediction of Financial Distress, Accounting ratio, Decision Trees





Strategic Environment Resource Management Concept and Needs

Abdul Hadi, Poni Yanita, Cahya Fajar Budi Hartanto, Svetlana Nikolaevna Sychanina, Wiflihani

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 652-656 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Strategy is a multi-dimensional idea going great past customary aggressive procedure ideas. Methodologies are wide explanations that set a path. Strategies area an obtainable, specific, measurable arrangement of plans carefully created with association by a foundation's partners. These activity proclamations are connected to an individual or people who are responsible and engaged to accomplish their responsibility regarding the environment. The process of human asset work with the key destinations of the association so as to improve execution is known as Strategic environment resource management. Keeping and attracting skilled and talented workers is one of the most significant difficulties associations face in the present powerful business world   


Keywords: Strategy, Strategic human resource management, Talented workers, Improve execution





Efficiency of the Solar Energy Usage by Winter Wheat Plantings Made with Different Crop Cultivation Technologies

Olga V. Melnikova, Vladimir E. Torikov, Anatoliy S. Kononov, Viktor P. Kosianchuk, Evgeniy V. Prosyannikov, Alexei A. Osipov

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 657-663 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The paper presents the results of determining the efficiency of the solar energy usage by winter wheat crops cultivated with different technologies on the gray forest middle-loamy soil in the southwestern part of the Central region of Russia. The authors found that the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) usage coefficient can be increased by agrotechnical methods of cultivation, primarily by optimizing the mineral nutrition of plants. It was shown that the application of mineral fertilizers in intensive agricultural technologies (N60-90 P60K120+N30+N30+pesticides) contributed to 1.8-2.0 times greater solar energy accumulation in the biomass of the winter wheat plantings Moskovskaya 56 and Nemchinovskaya 57, compared to biological technology (N0P0K0-control). When cultivating winter wheat Moskovskaya 56 and Nemchinovskaya 57 against a high background of mineral nutrition, in comparison with the control variant (N0P0K0), solar energy costs per unit of grain yield were reduced due to the formation of a higher yield (5,75 -6,36 t/ha of grain). Such an “economical” expenditure of solar energy on an economically valuable part of the plantings’ biomass can be explained by an increase in the PAR usage coefficient in crops by 2.8–2.9% at a high agricultural background, compared to the 1.4–1.6% increase of the control variant. A multiple correlation and regression analysis revealed a close positive relationship between the winter wheat grain yield and indicators of the dry plantings’ biomass (r = 0.998), total accumulated energy by plantings (r = 0.998), and the PAR usage by plantings (r = 0.998).


Keywords: Winter wheat, Grain yield, Dry biomass, Solar energy, Photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), PAR usage coefficient





Taking the Business Organizations into Account in Improving Environment

Ida Ayu Nuh Kartini, Herningsih, Samsul Susilawati, E. Laxmi Lydia, K. Shankar

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 664-668 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The links between the economy and the environment are manifold: the environment provides resources to the economy, and acts as a sink for emissions and waste. Poor environmental quality in turn affects economic growth and wellbeing by lowering the quantity and quality of resources or due to health impacts, etc. Environmental impact of economic growth. Economic growth means an increase in real output (real GDP). Therefore, with increased output and consumption we are likely to see costs imposed on the environment. Also, economic growth caused by improved technology can enable higher output with less pollution. This study aims to investigate the consequences of interfering economic organizations into activities which help the environmental treatment. Based on researches don through this study the slope of the number of such companies which their works are in tune with positive environmental activities is increasing.


Keywords: Customer Experience, Integration, REAL World, Organized Methodology





A Life Cycle Assessment Study for Integrated Management of Electronic Waste

Norazli Othman, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Roslina Mohammad and Nurul Aini Osman

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 669-673 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: An amount of 21,378,553 tonnes of electronic waste or e-waste is expected to be accumulated in Malaysia in the near 2020. To manage this increasing volume of solid wastes, the waste management technologies have to be further integrated. Knowledge of electronic waste compositions, contamination compounds in wastes, laws, guidelines and the management methods is essential to form a cost-effective and an environmental friendly management system. The aim of this study is to propose a technique for managing the electronic wastes through an integrated and holistic manner. The study proposed the use of a life cycle assessment to predict the burden and impacts of the integrated electronic waste management system towards the surroundings. The result of this study was obtained from a field study, data collection, life cycle assessment model, as well as by computer calculation development and impact analysis study. The findings of the study proposed that the implementation of an integrated electronic waste management must combine sustainable techniques for waste collection, waste sorting, materials recycling, thermal treatment and landfill methods to achieve the maximum system effectiveness. However, the pollution control facilities are important to be part of the sustainable technique to ensure that the system will produce the best management method for electronic waste. The advantages of implementing an integrated electronic waste management are that this system is able to contribute to the economic growth of a country and reduce the impacts of pollutants to the environment.


Keywords: Waste collection, Central sorting, Recycling process, Thermal treatment, Landfill





Physical Training Teacher Certification as a Basis of the Professional Standard Requirements for Teachers

Elena V. Bystritskaya, Vitaly L. Skitnevskiy, Yulia S. Krasilnikova, Elena L. Grigoryeva, Ivan A. Sedov, Valentina F. Balashova, Gennadij N. Germanov

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 674-678 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The relevance of the research subject is defined by the special attention currently paid by employers to the professional competence of teachers. Whereas the professional standard for Teachers describes all requirements to personality of professional teacher’s competence, which motivates a teacher for self-improvement to become competitive in the labor market. The goal of the article is to develop a concept of “Creative vector certification of a Physical training teacher from the perspective of the professional standard requirements”. The leading research method of the study of the subject matter is the systematic approach applied in the procedure of professional certification of Physical training teachers in conditions of education upgrading. Findings of the research are in defining the main requirements of the professional standard for Teachers in relation to Physical training teachers, as well as in development of certification technology for Physical training teachers to ensure achievement by a teacher of high meta-subject, subject and personal results by means of using the author’s concept. The article materials can be helpful for teachers of various education levels, as well as for supplementary education teachers, coaches, school-counselors in the field of physical education.


Keywords: Federal state higher education standard, Qualification assessment procedure, Professional standard for Teachers, Internship center, Certification





Physical Security Problems in Local Governments: A Survey

Poon Ai Phin, Hafiza Abbas, Norshaliza Kamaruddin

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 679-686 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Physical security refers to the control of access into organizations, buildings, rooms, and information technology (IT) peripherals. However, physical security may be overlooked by organizations because they are more concerned about information security; this is because the organization assumes that those granted access can be trusted. The physical security is not a new issue in a local government environment; however, in most cases, hackers are to blame, while the actual culprits may be the employee(s) of the local government itself. This paper is a survey done to investigate the problems faced by a local government and the measures needed to be taken to keep their physical access secure. The subject of the research is chosen from among municipal councils in Malaysia since they hold various private information about the residents of the area, where physical security awareness is still low among the members of the organization. As a case study, the Kota Bharu Municipal Council (KBMC) was selected and its security problems were identified through a research comprising a mixed method of quantitative (questionnaire and observation) and qualitative (interview) techniques. The respondents of the research were eight employees of the IT Department, while the solution to their security problems was derived through interviewing its IT Officer. The researchers also discuss if KBMC is able to apply other local government’s solutions to their own security problems. The discussion reveals that the security awareness program is the most suitable solution to the KBMC’s security problems since it enhances security awareness of top management officers and enables the employees to be aware of their responsibilities in their daily work routine.


Keywords: Physical security, Physical access, Local government, Security awareness, SETA, Sustainable security culture





Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms for Protease Production from Soil Samples from Kosovo and Testing the Enzymes in Food Industry Application

Bahtir Hyseni, Flora Ferati, Fatos Rexhepi, Rifat Morina, Ylberinë Baliu, Shkëlqim Hyseni, Aida Rushiti, Sabri Hajdini, Emrah Nikerel

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 687-693 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Soil samples from different locations in Kosovo were screened for bacteria suitable for high-level production of various proteases. 5 isolates were found and selected to be promising candidates and further characterized by biochemical and morphological assays as well as 16S RNA sequencing and identified as Bacillus spp. The isolates were used for protease production via submerged fermentation. The produced enzymes were tested for different food industry applications, like meat, beer, milk, and feather degradation. The highest protease activity achieved was 0.63U mL-1 at 37oC pH 4.7 from strain S10-1 which showed high potential for meat industry application.


Keywords: Bacillus spp.; Enzymes; Fermentation; Industrial biotechnology





Adsorptive Remediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Marine Water Using Chemically and Thermally Modified Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Husks

Samuel E. Agarry, Kigho M. Oghenejoboh, Ewomazino. O. Oghenejoboh, Chiedu N. Owabor, Oladipupo O. Ogunleye

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 694-707 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This study evaluated the potential of a chemically and thermally modified coconut husk as oil-spill sorbents in the remediation of crude oil contaminated marine water under varying physical factors of sorption time, initial oil concentration, temperature, sorbent dosage and oil weathering number of days. Coconut husk (CH) was chemically activated with zinc chloride and then pyrolyzed at a different combination of temperatures-retention times of 400 -800 oC and 30 – 60 minutes to produce un-activated and activated coconut husk-derived biochar (CHB and ACHB), while acetylated-coconut husk (ACCH) was produced using acetic anhydride. The results revealed that the sorption potential of coconut husk can be enhanced by chemical, thermal (pyrolysis) and chemo-thermal treatments (chemical/pyrolysis). The oil sorption capacities and oil removal efficiencies of raw CH, ACCH, CHB800-60, and ACHB800-60 were a function of the physical factors. The rate of oil sorption by raw CH, ACCH, and CHB800-60 follows pseudo-second-order kinetics while that of ACHB800-60 follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The oil sorption by raw CH, ACCH, CHB800-60 and ACHB800-60 occurs via both surface and intraparticle diffusion mechanism. Freundlich isotherm best describe the oil sorption behaviour of ACCH, CHB800-60, and ACHB800-60, respectively, while Langmuir isotherm best describes the sorption of raw CH. The maximum monolayer sorption capacities were 12.11 g/g, 15.06 g/g, 16.10 g/g, and 16.84 g/g for the raw CH, ACCH, CHB800-60 and ACHB800-60, respectively, and hence the performance of the sorbents was in the following order: ACHB800-60 > CHB800-60 > ACCH > raw CH.


Keywords: Adsorptive remediation; Isotherms; Kinetics; Modified coconut husk; Oil spill





Optimization of Operating Conditions of Increasing HBsAg Protein Expression in FED BATCH Fermentation Process by Changing Pichia Pastoris Culture Medium Conditions and Examining Growth of Yeast Cells by Methanol Testing

Payam Moradi Zalam Abadi, Alireza Fazlali, Seyed Nezamedin Hosseini, Ehsan Jafarbeigi, Farhad Salimi

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 708-717 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Optimization of the culture medium and induction conditions in the fed-batch fermentor is the commonest and easiest method to increase the overall productivity of recombinant proteins production. Environmental conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), PH, and agitation also have a major impact on the expression of recombinant protein. Since the production of the recombinant protein in pichia pastoris is highly affected by induction conditions, providing induction conditions is one of the most important ways to increase the productivity rate. AOX1 gene enables recombinant proteins expression at the highest level in methylotrophic yeasts. This gene is activated by methanol and induced protein expression. Low and high methanol amounts respectively lead to its reduced induction ability and overproduction of formaldehyde and other toxic substances. However, given that carbon is considered as microorganisms feed, therefore, the injection of pure methanol in a timely manner in sufficient quantities in specified time intervals, the necessary amounts of carbon were supplied   for feeding them. Also, vitamins such as vitamin A and B were regularly injected to the extent necessary in the fermentation process. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the methanol feeding process, an increase in specific growth rate (µ), OD and dry weight (WW), comparison of the increase in OD and WW. The results showed that the performance of the feeding profile is improved as much as possible according to the existing facilities.


Keywords: Pichia pastoris; Methanol utilization pathway; Fed-batch fermentation; Recombinant protein expression; Genome annotation





Enhancing the Physical, Mechanical, Oxygen Permeability and Photodegradation Properties of Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN), Butadiene Rubber (BR) Composite by Silica Nanoparticles

Nooredin Goudarzian, Soheil Samiei, Fatemeh Safari, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Sargol Mazraedoost

Volume 8  |  Issue 2 |  Pages: 718-726 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Polymer-nanosilica composite was prepared using Silica nanoparticles as reinforcing fillers in Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN). Copolymer Styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN) is such warm, soft clear resins that because of having suitable Physical and mechanical properties, have excellent resistance against chemical also low solvent and cost toward another copolymer styrene that caused to be in a category of much used of them. The effect of increasing nano-silica loadings on the mechanical properties of BR nanocomposites was also studied. Its defect is its fragility that, with its alloying with Butadiene Rubber, prevents its fragility. Basically, with adding inorganic Nano bits, changed strength and modulus of elasticity of plastics while increasing Nano bits decrease the strength of the hit. In this study, copolymer Styrene-acrylonitrile considered as a matrix and for increasing mechanical qualities used Nano bits silica diacid. Results of automated tests (XRD), (TGA), (HDT), and (SEM) were a sign of improvement of mechanical and thermal qualities. Nowadays, due to using lots of plastics in various industries, this probability exists that destroyed whit being exposed to direct solar radiation. So light destroyed plastics is very important. In this project whit using Oxoperoxidant blend prepared with the ability of light destruction, so that after one and three months, results show to destroy its lights.


Keyword: Permeability, Oxoperoxidant, Styrene-acrylonitrile, Degradation




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