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Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).



Investigation the Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Insecticidal Activities of Cuscuta epithymum and Pyrethrum roseum Plants using Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS)

Kamiar Zomorodian, Davoud saeidi, Diba Fani, Fatemeh Tazarvi, Mohammad Reza  Hajinezhad, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Ali Mohammad Amani,  Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 234-244 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: In this study, the antioxidant, anti-fungal and also anti-bacterial content in Cuscuta epithymum and Pyrethrum roseum plants were investigated. The extraction of essences is sensitive to operational conditions. Therefore, the effect of different extraction techniques  by  using HS -SPME fiber assembly Carboxen/​Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS), on the quality of essence oil composition was inspected and the composition of  the final product was recognized using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy.Essential Cuscuta epithymum and Pyrethrum roseum  is widely used in pharmaceutical, sanitary, cosmetic, agriculture and food industries for their bactericidal, virucidal, fungicidal, antiparasitical and insecticidal properties. Their anticancer activity is well documented. The chemical composition of the essential oil from Cuscuta epithymum and Pyrethrum roseum was analyzed by GC-MS.


Keyword: antioxidants, antimicrobial, insecticidal activity, Cuscuta epithymum, Pyrethrum roseum



Preparation of ZnXFe3-XO4@chitosan Nanoparticles As an Adsorbent for Methyl Orange and Phenol  

Mina Gholami, Mohammad Mohammadi, Alireza Zare-Hoseinabadi, Saeed Taghizadeh, Abbas Behzad Behbahani, Rita Arab Solghar, Ali Mohammad Amani

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 245-249 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: We have propounded an easy preparation process for the synthesis of chitosan-covered ZnXFe3-XO4 nanoparticles by the application of FeCl2.4H2O, FeCl3.6H2O, and Zinc Acetate. The synthesized nanoparticles, which went through various analysis methods, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating-sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, were later on exploited as adsorbent for phenol and Mo contaminations. Trapped within a matrix of chitosan, the synthesized ZnXFe3-XO4 nanoparticles had a size of less than 30nm. The EDS and FTIR analysis methods demonstrated the presence of Zn element inside the structure and the NH2 group on nanoparticles’ surface, respectively. The coated nanoparticles had a magnetic saturation of 60 emu/g. Accordingly, the results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a very high capacity phenol and methyl adsorption.


Keyword: Ferrite Magnetite, ZnFe2O4, NH2 Magnetic Nanobeads, chitosan




Reducing Carbon Emission by two Dispatching Rules for Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shops

Arash Gholamkhasi, Syed Helmi Bin Syed Hassan, Aini Zuhra bt Abdul kadir

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 250-259 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Manufacturing direct or indirect is accountable for almost one-third of carbon emission. Carbon eventually has trapped in the atmosphere in the shape of Co2; the dangerous gas that causes climate change and threatens human life. On the other hand, albeit the significant share of flexible job shops in manufacturing systems; few studies have been executed to overcome the carbon emission issue. Thus two fast algorithms called MCT and MCE have been introduced to reduce carbon emission along C-max and total machine workload. Then the results have been examined alongside some well-known meta-heuristic algorithms. Investigating results have shown a reasonable standard deviation; which proves a proper balance in production lines. Furthermore, for most instances, a minimum workload has been reported. Moreover, the completion times were acceptable, as well. Then reported data guaranteed the quality of the offered algorithm regarding time and accuracy. Furthermore, implementing a random operator or hybridizing these methods with meta-heuristics might enhance the performance.


Keywords: Environment, Carbon emission, Flexible job shop, Dispatching rules, Multi-objective, Makespan




Water Quality Index (WQI) Assessment along Inland Fresh Waters of Taylor Creek in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Ayobami Aigberua, Timi Tarawou

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 260-269 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The overall water quality status of Taylor Creek was determined using water quality index. The river course was characterized by human activities such as artisanal dredging, fish farming, waste dumpsites and farmlands amongst other influences. Samples were collected in the dry season month of December 2018 at two points each across five stations. A total of ten surface water samples were analysed for physicochemical parameters using APHA standard procedures. The assessed water quality parameters depicted the ranges: 73.00 – 79.00 µs/cm EC, 40.20 – 43.65 mg/l TDS, 5.85 – 6.20 pH, 7.00 – 8.00 mg/l TA, 12.00 – 16.50 mg/l TH, 2.10 - 2.73 mg/l Ca, 0.58 – 1.07 mg/l Mg, 6.20 – 8.50 mg/l DO, 16.50 – 24.74 mg/l Cl-, 3.00 – 3.60 mg/l NO3- and 0.50 – 1.71 mg/l BOD5. Only two water parameters depicted significant difference (P<0.05) with the trend: Ca < BOD5 while significant variation (P<0.05) among sample locations revealed the trend: Ogboloma > Okolobiri > Obunagha = Koroama > Polaku. EC showed strong positive correlation with TDS while NO3- showed the most positive correlation; its positive correlations with pH, TA, Cl-, DO and BOD depicts it as an important water quality indicator. Deterioration in water quality status depicted the trend: Koroama < Obunagha < Polaku < Ogboloma < Okolobiri. WQI assessment showed that the water environment was of poor quality which may portend adverse health risks to members of the public who consume it. Consequently, the Creek should be monitored regularly to evaluate trends, establish baseline information and guide against pollution-encroaching activities.


Keywords: Taylor creek, dissolved oxygen (DO), American Public Health Association (APHA), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate (NO3-)




Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Profiles of Serotypes of Shigella Species isolated from Community Children in Odeda Local Government, Ogun State.

Ajayi, O.I., Ojo, D.A., Akinduti, P.A., Akintokun, A.K., Akinrotoye, K.P.

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 270-281 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) has been a menace that has eaten so deep into the bone marrow of children’s health majorly in developing countries worldwide. The symptom ranges from mild diarrhoea to severe dysentery. The infection is of general health concern which is common in communities with inadequate and proper hygiene, lacking portable water. This study therefore addressed the preponderance and antibiotic resistance profiles of different serotypes of Shigella species gotten from stool samples of 248 school children among selected communities in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. The stool samples were cultured in Glucose nutrient broth and later sub-cultured for Shigella species using MacConkey, Desoxycholate citrate agar, Salmonella-Shigella agar. The obtained bacterial isolates were phenotypically characterized using morphological and biochemical methods. Antibiotic susceptibleness of isolates was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s disc diffusion method while their Multiple Antibiotic Resistance index (MARI) was determined in addition to their hemolytic pattern on blood agar. Data obtained were methodically examined and analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). From the 248 stool samples cultured, 275 bacteria of different categories were isolated of which Shigella spp was isolated in 10 samples representing 4.03 % prevalence. The Shigella isolates revealed susceptibleness of 80 % to Pefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Ofloxacin and 100 % resistance to Augmentin, Nitrofurantoin and Amoxycillin. High Multiple Antibiotic Revealed was High Multiple Antibiotics Resistance index greater than 0.2 in all the Shigella isolates while 4 out of ten isolates showed partial α-hemolytic reaction representing 40 % and the remaining 6 representing 60 % showed γ- hemolytic reaction. The low prevalence of Shigella isolates was not significant with sex, age group, social stratification, religion and educational level of the primary school learners (P>0.05). The need for urgent preventive measures, regulation of antibiotic usage and enforcement of safety hygiene is advocated.


Keywords: Antimicrobial Resistance, Shigella spp, Prevalence, Community Children, Public Health



Awareness on Medical Waste Management and Occupational Health Safety among the Employees Related to Medical Services at Upazila Level in Bangladesh

Kazi Shamima Akter, Shaikh Mohammad Shamim Reza

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 282-288 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The proper knowledge in waste management is a vital requirement the proper waste management.  Whereas the number of Healthcare Establishments (HCEs) is increasing day by day at upazila level, it is necessary to evaluate the level of knowledge on medical waste management of the employee related to medical services. It is also necessary to find the occupational health safety practices among the employees. In this study, Singra Upazila of Natore district in Rajshahi division has been selected to achieve the objectives of the study. A total 40 numbers of HCEs was selected in the study area. To find the level of knowledge in Medical Waste Management (MWM) practices, a questionnaire survey was conducted among the employees of the selected HCEs. The questionnaire also helped to find the occupational health safety practice and the difficulties faced by the employees. After getting all the data from field observation and questionnaire survey, the results are accumulated by using SPSS software. After that, results were presented by tables and bar charts. It was found that, hands on training played an important role in both knowledge level of employees and occupational health safety practices. It was also found that all the non-government employees are non-trained. On the other hand, most of government employees are trained and only a few were non-trained. So, the comparison between government and non-government can consider as the comparison between trained and non-trained employee. The knowledge level of government HCE’s employees found higher than the private HCE’s employees. The government HCE’s employees were also more aware about occupational health safety practices. So, they had less injuries the private HCE’s employees. Workers were facing different types of difficulties as well as occupational health hazard in both types of HCEs. Finally it was recommended that, to run a proper waste management system, the employees will need hands on training on it.


Keywords: Medical Waste, Hazardous waste, Rural Health Care, Awareness, Knowledge, Occupational health safety




Application of Cementation Technology in a Chemical Recycle Plant Treating Waste Copper-Bearing Solution from Micro-Etching Processes

Nan-Min Wu and Wen-Chin Chen

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 289-294 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Waste copper-bearing solution generated from the micro-etching process of printed circuit boards (PCBs) was studied using cementation technology in a chemical recycle plant.  Operation parameters include initial copper ion concentrations (15, 23, 30 g/L) and pH values (pH = 1, 2, 3, 4) were assessed.  Results showed that, within the range from 15 to 30 g/L of copper ion concentration, the reaction rate decreased with increasing the initial concentration.  In addition, the higher the pH value the slower the copper cementation rate.  And at pH = 4, the rate is as low as about 40 %, compared to the other pH values.  It is attributed that, presumably as the pH of the solution increases, the copper hydroxide may be deposited onto the iron sheet surface to form a passivation layer, resulting in the blocking of solid-liquid interface mass transfer.  Results from mass balance calculations indicated that the unit operation of the plant was quite in agreement with expectations.  However, the average resource conversion rate (RCR) was at 58.7%.  In order to increase the resource conversion rate, it is suggested that either a reduction of water consumption or a water recycling program to the process should be taken into consideration to increase the RCR.  The result of this study is beneficial to shorten the gap between theoretical research and practical operations for chemical recycle plant that is positive to industrial waste reduction and resource sustainability.


Keywords: Micro-etching, cementation technology, passivation, mass balance, resource conversion rate




SPT Based Soil Liquefaction Susceptibility Assessment: A Review

Sarah Tahsin Noor, Sherajul Islam, Shaikh Mohammad Shamim Reza

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 295-299 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Development projects in the low land areas are frequently carried out in Bangladesh after filled lands. Bangladesh lies in the seismic active zone. Therefore, during the earthquake, severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground may be experienced in these areas due to the presence of thick loose sand bed. When the loose sand is saturated and under moderate to high shear stresses, such as beneath a foundation or sloping ground, large shear deformations or even flow failure may take place due to the loss of shear strength accompanied by the softening. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the variation of different variable parameters in the cyclic stress-based method while evaluating the liquefaction potential. The risk of liquefaction in Bangladesh and the issues that are needed to be addressed in evaluation in liquefaction evaluation are also discussed. The output of the study will enable the practicing engineer to assess liquefaction susceptibility of the construction site from the borehole data.


Keywords: liquefaction, SPT, cyclic stress ratio, cyclic resistance ratio




Experimental Studies of Strength and Cost Analysis of Mortar Using Bagasse Waste Obtained from Sugarcane Factory of Bangladesh

Shaikh Mohammad Shamim Reza

Volume 7  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 300-305 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse is an available waste material in Bangladesh which is a by-product of sugar factories. Proper uses of bagasse ash in cement mortar may give the optimum solution for environmental issues. Whereas the construction industry is rapidly expanding in Bangladesh, so the country needs a large amount of cement. In this study Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) was used to replace some part of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and Portland Composite Cement (PCC) in the mortar. Bagasse sample was collected from Natore sugar mill. After collection, bagasse was dried in sun for a week and then it burned in at 800°C to 1000°C temperature for 20 minutes. OPC and PCC was replaced by SCBA at different percentage ratios at 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, 22.5%, 25%, 27.5% and 30%. The compressive strengths of different mortar with SCBA addition were also investigated. Strength was tested for 3, 7 and 28 days. The test results indicated that up to 30% replacement of OPC by Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) in mortar satisfied the BNBC (2006) code. On the other hand, up to 27.5% replacement of PCC by SCBA in the mortar was satisfied by code. Cost analysis showed the economic advantages of using SCBA. For OPC-SCBA mortar the cost was reduced over 20%. On the other hand, the cost was reduced by almost 20% for PCC-SCBA mortar. Use of SCBA can also reduce the waste disposal problems of the sugarcane industries.


Keywords: Industrial Waste, Sugarcane Bagasse, Ash, Cement Mortar, Pozzolanic material, Cement replacement, Sustainable, Compressive strength, Cost effective




Energy Consumption Policy, GHG Emissions and Climate Change Impact in Algeria

Abdelkarim Mellah, Youcef Abdelhafid, Ahmed Benmalek

Volume 7  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 306-315 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: In recent years, the phenomenon of climate change has become very remarkable in Algeria, given its recorded effects on the temperature and precipitation. Algeria is among the top 50 countries at high risk of climate change, with a vulnerability index of 7.63%, because of its geographical position and climatic characteristics. This climate change leads to major risks in Algeria such as the displacement of sub-Saharan diseases like malaria, typhoid, and viral hepatitis, etc..., phenomenon of colored waters on the coast, drought on wide ranges, coastal erosion is also very marked, which may cause flood risks threatening in some regions. In this work, we present an analysis of GHG emissions as the main culprit in the phenomenon of climate change in Algeria compared to other countries. We analysis as well the national strategy to reduce GHG emissions and its plans of mitigation, adaptation, and the implementation of the program of renewable energies development and energy efficiency, whose offer a great potential for GHG mitigation. The analyses of data of temperature and rainfall from 2009 to 2018 show a clear tendency towards decreasing rainfall and increasing average temperatures in north and south of Algeria.


Keywords: CO2 emissions, climate change, renewable energy, economic growth, Algeria.




Critical Issues of Present Medical Waste Management Practice in Rajshahi City and its Improvement Strategies

Md. Niamul Bari, Mir Md. Abdul Hannan, Md. Zahanggir Alam, Md. Annaduzzaman

Volume 7  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 316-323 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate medical waste management practices and to determine the critical issues in medical waste management in Rajshahi City. A survey was conducted to collect information about the practices related to waste segregation, collection procedures, types of onsite storage containers, onsite handling, processing and storage, primary dumping point, transfer and transport, treatment of wastes, and final disposal options. This study indicates that the rate of medical waste generation varies among health care establishment as 336.23 kg/day, 7.14 kg/day, 2.11 kg/day, 3.92 kg/day, 1.21 kg/day and 15.05 kg/day at Rajshahi Medical College Hospital, Christian Mission Hospital, Al-Madina Clinic, Mohanagar Clinic, Rajshahi Dental College and Popular Diagnostic Center, respectively. The highest 15 types of wastes are analyzed from wastes generated in Rajshahi medical college hospital. However, only two to six types of wastes are obtained in other health care facilities. The critical issues identified from this study are not accumulation of all types of wastes in every hospital, colour containers are not always used by many hospitals, collection of wastes from source of generation is not properly performed, primary dumping site is not cleaned after transferring and transporting the waste, there is no incinerator except Rajshahi Medical College Hospital and it is not used regularly, hazardous wastes are burnt in open place. Rajshahi City Corporation, the waste management authority, has no treatment and disposal facility for medical wastes. The wastes collected from all health care facilities are dumped by municipal authority along with the municipal solid wastes by open dumping method. From this study it can be mentioned that there is an urgent need to take immediate action for raising awareness and education on medical waste management issues. Moreover, trained and skilled medical wastes management workers are essential in Rajshahi City.


Keywords: Medical waste, Hazardous, management, Critical issues, Improvement




Modeling of Adsorption in a Packed Bed Tower, the Case Study of Methane Removal and Parametric Calculation

Keyvan Norouzi

 Volume 7  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 324-333 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: In this work, the modeling of methane adsorption in a tower with fixed bed has been studied. In order to present a mathematical model, the mass balance was written in the tower. The obtained equations with the assumption of no changes in the concentration, temperature, and pressure in the radial direction as well as the axial dispersion of the flow pattern were solved by using numerical methods. Among various numerical methods, an implicit finite difference method was used to solve the equations. Base on the obtained model, the effect of temperature, inlet flow rate, bed length, and pressure on the adsorption tower was investigated. It was observed that with the temperature decreases, the adsorption rate increases. At a specified time, the amount of adsorbate in the gas phase at the outlet of the bed from 306 to 295 decreased by changing the temperature from T=298K to T=308K. also, the effect of pressure, gas velocity, adsorbent size and bed length in separate diagrams was studied and it was determined that with increasing pressure, decreasing gas velocity, increasing bed length and decreasing adsorbent size and adsorption rate increase.


Keywords: Adsorption, Modeling, Methane, Packed bed tower, fixed bed.




Integrated Nutrient Management of Organic and Bio-Fertilizer to Enhance Maize Production

Magda, H. Mohamed, Nabila, M. Zaki, M. S. Hassanein, Amal, G. Ahmed, and M. M. Tawfik

 Volume 7  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 334-340 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Integrated nutrient management (INM) is the concept of using a combination of organic, inorganic, and biological amendments to increase nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and reduce nutrient loss by synchronizing crop demand with nutrient availability in soil. In order to produce more food with limited space, farmers utilize several techniques. One of the best techniques is application of different types of organic and biofertilizers in soil in integrated nutrient management system and consequently maintain the soil nutrients level. It allows plant to grow, flourish, and keep the environment save. Importance of maize (Zea mays L.) crop is justified by its nutritious content especially because of the presence of high protein, minerals, vitamins and other energetic nutrients. In Egypt, maize production is insufficient, so various strategies have been developed to improve its production. In order to study the promoting effect of organic and biofertilizer on growth and yield of maize plant, a field experiment was conducted in Wadi El-Rayan, Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, during the two successive seasons of 2014 and 2015 to study the impact of organic or/and bio-fertilizer on growth, yield and its components and some chemical contents of two maize cultivars. The present study indicate that organic or/and bio-fertilizer had a positive effect on growth parameters. Yield and its components characters i.e. plant height (cm), number of rows per ear, length and diameter of ear, grain and straw yield per plant (g), seed index, grain, straw and biological yields (ton/fad.) of maize were also enhanced with organic or/and bio-fertilizer application. There were significant differences between two maize cultivars in growth parameters, yield and its components expect harvest index. The highest values of number of rows per ear (23.37), length of ear (22.517 cm ), diameter of ear (6.36cm ), grain yield per plant (151.67g) and straw yield per plant  (262.33g) were recorded in High tech-2031 cultivar fertilized under 10 ton/fad. pigeon manure + foliar application of yeast bread. High tech-2031 cultivar fertilized with 10 ton/fad. pigeon manure + foliar application of yeast bread produced the highest value of carbohydrate and protein % in the grains.


Keywords: Maize, growth, yield, cultivars, organic or/ and bio-fertilizer




CO2 Removal from Gas Mixtures by Aqueous Solutions of MEA and (MEA+AEEA) and Results Comparing Using the Modified Kent-Eisenberg Model

Nasibeh Alishvandi, Alireza Jahangiri

Volume 7  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 341-348 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Considering the growing importance of alkanolamine aqueous solvents in gas refineries or other powerhouses, it is essential to achieve the appropriate solution for CO2 absorption. This requires to produce systematic vapor-liquid equilibrium data in a wide range of temperature, CO2 partial pressure and different alkanolamines concentration. In this research with the application of equilibrium pilot plant in local atmospheric pressure, CO2 solubility data have been reported in MEA solvent and its blend with AEEA in temperatures (303, 313 and 323) K, CO2 partial pressures of (8.44, 25.33 and 42.22) kPa, concentrations of 12 wt% for MEA and (12+1, 12+2 and12+3) wt% for (MEA+AEEA). The measured solubility was then predicted by the theoretical model of modified Kent Eisenberg. The constant parameters of the apparent equilibrium for the porotonation and carbamate reaction in the Modified Kent Eisenberg model were optimized with the MATLAB software. It was conclude that CO2 solubility values in all the studied experiments increased with increasing CO2 partial pressure while increasing temperature and solvent concentration decreased the solubility. The comparison between the CO2 absorption into the MEA solvent alone and AEEA activated MEA shows that (MEA+AEEA) blend in compare to the single MEA has a higher CO2 loading. Also %AAD values for the solubility of MEA and (MEA+AEEA) were found to be 3 and 17.28 respectively.

Keywords: CO2 solubility, MEA, AEEA, Modified Kent–Eisenberg model, correlation






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