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In press


Note to users: Articles in Press are peer reviewed, accepted articles to be published in this journal. When the final article is assigned to volumes/issues of the publication, the Article in Press version will be removed and the final version will appear in the associated published volumes/issues of the publication. The date an article was first made available online will be carried over. Please be aware that, although Articles in Press do not have all bibliographic details available yet, they can already be cited using the year of online publication, as follows: author(s), article title, Journal (year).




A Treatment Wetland Park Assessment Model for Evaluating Urban Ecosystem Stability using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Arezou Shafaghat, Ooi Jin Ying, Ali Keyvanfar, Amir Jamshidnezhad, M. Salim Ferwati, Hamidah Ahmad, Sapura Mohamad, Majid Khorami

Volume x  |  Issue x |  Pages: xx-xx | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The increased impervious and built-up urban areas threat ecosystem stability through major environmental problems, such as surface runoff, flooding, and wildlife habitat resource depletion. Hence, urban ecologists and planners are attempting to enhance the capacities of wetlands parks in urban ecosystem stabilization. They need an assessment tool to evaluate and quantify the performance of wetland parks on these issues, hereof this study has developed the Urban Wetland Park (UWP) index assessment model. The research conducted three phases; the requirement study to identify the features of wetland park design, formulating index model using Analytical Hierarchy Process method, and model validation using expert input. The UWP model identified eighteen features clustered into three criteria and fifteen sub-criteria and then determined the weights of features. For model validation, the UWP model was applied in Putrajaya wetland park. The UWP resulted with grade B (Good) for Putrajaya wetland park. It means the Putrajaya wetland park performs well in ecosystem stabilization, although the experts recommended few minor improvements regarding site selection (WC1.1.= 0.588), multi-cell and multi-stage design (WC1.5.= 0.604), depth proportion (WC1.6.= 0.652), and biodiversity (WC2.1.= 0.691). Study proposed the UWP as a universal decision support tool to help urban authorities, urban planners and ecologists to assess the ecosystem stabilization of wetland parks.


Keywords: Urban Ecology, Treatment Wetland, Wetland Park, Decision Support Tool, Analytical Hierarchy Process





An Urban River Park Restoration Assessment Model using Analytical Network Process (ANP)

Arezou Shafaghat, Kiu Sue Jing, Ali Keyvanfar, Amir Jamshidnezhad, Hasanuddin Lamit, Majid Khorami

Volume x  |  Issue x |  Pages: xx-xx | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The urban planners and developers are attempting to restore the river parks through sustainable and ecological approaches which return the encroached habitats and degraded ecosystems to a stable and healthy condition. However, they need an assessment model to measure and quantify the urban river park’s ecological restoration performances and capabilities. Accordingly, this research has developed the Urban River Park Restoration (URPR) Assessment Model. The UPRP assessment model has been developed using the Analytical Network Process (ANP) method. The URPR model is a multi‐layered decision-making model involving four criteria and thirty sub-criteria. Among the criteria, the river slope stabilization techniques have gained the highest limited weight (WC2=0.844), followed by the stream buffer (WC1=0.0841). Within all sub-criteria, the vegetated geogrid has gained the highest limited weight (WC2.6=0.0442), followed by the vegetated gabion (WC2.2=0.037). The UPRP model aids urban professional to assess and improve the urban river park’s ecosystem. This model can be applied to any river parks around the world, and this research implemented it to Bishan River Park in Malaysia. According to URPR model assessment results, the Bishan River Park earned Grade B (Good), means, some minor restoration improvements are needed.  


Keywords: River Park, Restoration, Ecological Assessment, Decision Making, Assessment Model, Analytical Network Process (ANP)





Potassium Halides - Impregnated Eggshell as a Heterogeneous Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production

Mansoor Anbia,  Sholeh Masoomi, Sotoudeh Sedaghat, Mohammad Sepehrian

Volume x  |  Issue x |  Pages: xx-xx | PDF | HTML



Abstract: In this study, Potassium halides-doped Calcium Oxide (CaO) was synthesized as heterogeneous nanocatalysts for transesterification of waste cooking oil. The chicken eggshell wastes were used as raw materials to synthesize calcium oxide. The calcium carbonate (CaCO3), principal constituent in the eggshell, was changed to calcium oxide by calcining at 873 K for 4 h. After that, the calcium oxide was impregnated with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium fluoride (KF) via wet impregnation method. The textural properties of the solid oxide catalyst were characterized by base strength, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The basic strengths of the catalysts were determined applying Hammett indicator. The yield of nanocatalysts evaluated by using the prepared catalysts in waste cooking oil transesterification with methanol for at 338 K 2 h. the catalytic activity depends on several factors such as, base strength, Impregnation and calcination processes and impregnated Compound. The formed KCaF3 was the major active element for the catalytic activity in KF/CaO nanocatalyst, however, this activity was not observed in KI/CaO nanocatalyst. For the reason of presenting of this component, the Ca2+ in KF/CaO acts as a stronger Lewis acid and exhibits high catalytic activity. Biodiesel yield for KF/CaO catalyst and KI/CaO was 91.18 % and 87.69%, respectively.


Keywords: Heterogeneous nanocatalyst, Eggshell wastes, Basic nanocatalyst, Biodiesel Production




Utilization Potential of Waste from Sugarcane Factory of Bangladesh as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Shaikh Mohammad Shamim Reza, Sherajul islam

Volume x  |  Issue x |  Pages: xx-xx | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse easily found in sugar factories of Bangladesh. Some of them are used as fuel in sugar mills and rest of them are dumped into environment without any commercial return. The disposal of this material is causing environmental problems around the sugar factories. On the other hand, urbanization and industrialization is rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. So, the construction industry is rapidly expanding. Currently large amount of cement is needed for this construction industry. It will be increasing day by day. The study examined the potentiality of using classified Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to replace some part of OPC cement in concrete. In this study, bagasse sample was collected from Natore sugar mill. After collecting the sugarcane bagasse, it was dried in sun for a week and then it burned in aggregate burning oven at 800°C to 1000°C temperature for 20 minutes. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was replaced by SCBA at different percentage ratios at 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10 and 12.5%. Normal consistency and setting time were investigated for these ratios. The compressive strengths of different concrete with SCBA addition were also investigated. Strength was tested for 7, 28 and 56 days. The test results indicated that up to 5% replacement of cement by bagasse ash results in better or similar concrete properties. It also showed the economic advantages by using SCBA as a partial cement replacement material.


Keywords: Industrial Waste, Sugarcane Bagasse, Ash, Pozzolanic material, Cement replacement, Sustainable Concrete, Setting time, Compressive strength








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