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Volume 8, Issue 3, (2020)

Table of Contents




Dataset on the Assessments the Rate of Changing of Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature of Surface Water, Case Study: California, USA

Esmaiel Salami, Marjan Salari, Solmaz Nikbakht Sheibani, Maryam HosseiniKheirabad and Ehsan Teymouri

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 843-852 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Temperature affects aquatic organisms in many ways. Body temperature most aquatic organisms are the same as the surrounding water and fluctuate. Most aquatic organisms are limited to living in a temperature range, and when they are very low or high, they die. Temperature affects metabolism, reproduction and emergence. Temperature also affects the amount of photosynthesis of aquatic plants, the base of the aquatic food web. Pollutants can be toxic at higher temperatures. Most aquatic organisms need oxygen to survive. Oxygen is not part of the molecule of water, it is oxygen gas. Oxygen enters the water through the rain. Turbulence and wind through photosynthesis of aquatic plants. The body absorbs oxygen through structures such as cartilage or skin. Water-soluble ecosystems are stable drives. In the present study, temperature changes trending and dissolved oxygen concentration have been investigated. After that, the speed of temperature changes in degree and dissolved oxygen concentration in mg/L were calculated in each year. To achieve these terms, as can be seen in equation 1, the average of temperature and dissolved oxygen in one year compared with the same items in other years. An 11-year period of time (2007-2017) was considered. The result showed that the average value of DO changing rate in the area of study is equal to -0.138  and for T the average rate of change is equal to +0.02 ºC/y.


Keywords: Ecosystem, Dissolved oxygen, Temperature, Surface water, Photosynthesis





Strengthening Environment Resistance for Improving Quality Growth

Djoko Pitoyo, Nataliya Nikolaevna Seraya, Rafina Rafkatovna Zakieva, E. Laxmi Lydia, K. Shankar

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 853-856 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In line with the development of the digital economy, various environment resources at this time can be utilized with the speed of distribution and increasingly good quality. The fast and dynamic digital economy penetration has shaped the landscape of the digital economy in Indonesia to help the environment. Nowadays, Indonesia does not only cover the demand services for environment, e-commerce and financial technology (Fintech), but they also provide internet of things (IoT) services. The projection of digital economy development in Indonesia is shown by the growth of value of e-commerce environment by 1,625 percent to USD 130 billion in the 2013-2020 period. Since economics is an open system, the three main processes (extraction, processing, or production and consumption) all involve the generation of waste that is ultimately disposed of to the environment (air, water or land). Excessive waste in inappropriate locations and time will cause biological changes in the environment, which in turn damages animals, plants and ecosystems. If environmental damage to human health or adversely affect human welfare, economists believe that economic pollution has occurred.


Keywords: Digital economy, Economic resources, National industry, Economic growth





Study of Different Types of Experience Competencies to Enhance the Environment

Ida Ayu Nuh Kartini, Herningsih, Samsul Susilawati, E. Laxmi Lydia, K. Shankar

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 857-860 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: As a major aspect of an activity to make the experience of customer into the organization for improving the integration of the environment a phased and organized methodology is needed. Around the globe with scores of customers on the basis of working, the REAL world methodology is used. At “customer experience" when the operation and company become proficient the structure will "demystify" the end state and activities that should be able to recognize.   


Keywords: Customer experience; Integration; REAL world; Organized methodology





Application of Box-Behnken Design (BBD) to Optimizing COD Removal from Fresh Leachate using Combination of Ultrasound and Ultraviolet

Neamatollah Jaafarzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Zarghi, Mobina Salehin, Aliakbar Roudbari, Amir Zahedi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 861-869 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfill leachate contains highly concentrated organic substances which must be treated before discharged into aqueous environments. This study was done to optimize the removal of COD from fresh landfill leachate using combination of ultrasound and ultraviolet. The sample of fresh landfill leachate was obtained from a municipal landfill, and its COD was measured. Box-Behnken design was applied to analyze and optimize the removal of COD by different variables, including pH, contact time, ultrasound frequency and UV intensity. Based on this, 29 samples and three replications were tested. The analysis of variance indicated quadratic model was significant for removal of COD. According to the model, the removal efficiency of COD was obtained 92.1 % at optimal conditions (pH at 9.2, contact time of 54min, ultrasound frequency of 54 kHz and UV intensity of 45w). The removal efficiency of COD was 91.8 % in these conditions which agrees well with the predicted response value. The BOD5/COD ratio increased to 0.38 after treatment. Also, the values of average oxidation state (AOS) and carbon oxidation state (COS) increased to +1.9 and 3.49, respectively. This means that the treated leachate was much easier to biodegrade than the initial leachate.


Keywords: COD, Leachate, Ultrasound, Ultraviolet, BBD





Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Fish Scale Extract of Cyprinus carpio and its Decolorization Activity of Textile Dyes

Bharathi Vadivelu, Arun Meyyazhagan, Sampathkumar Palanisamy, Vijaya Anand Arumugam, Hesam Kamyab, Balamuralikrishnan Balasubramanian, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Krishna Kumar Yadav

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 870-874 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: There is an increasing commercial demand for nanoparticles due to their wide applicability in various areas such as electronics, catalysis, chemistry, energy, and medicine. This work deals with the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Cyprinus carpio fish scale extract to de-colorization of textile dyes. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, FT-IR and SEM analysis. The reaction mixture turned to a brownish gray color after 5 hrs of incubation and exhibits an absorbance peak around 450 nm characteristic of AgNPs. The SEM analysis showed AgNPs were pure and polydisperse and the size were ranging from 200 nm. The approach of biosynthesis seems to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of AgNPs synthesis. Dye degrading efficiency of AgNPs was assayed against azo dyes. At the end of 24 hrs AgNPs showed 48.38% of degradation. As the days of incubation increases from 1 day to 7 days, the degradation efficiency was also increased from 48.38% to 93.54% at the end of 7th day of incubation. Further, the FT-IR results confirmed that, the complex, toxic azo dyes are degraded into simple, non-toxic compounds.


Keywords: Fish scale, Cyprinus carpio, Silver nanoparticle, Textile dye, Decolorization





An Indicator Framework Approach on Manufacturing Water Assessment towards Sustainable Water Demand Management

Nurul Sa’dah Bahar, Zainura Zainon Noor, Azmi Aris, Nurul Ashikeen Binti Kamaruzaman

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 875-883 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Population growth, industrialization, urbanization and change of life style have increased global water demand. Although agricultural water demand accounts as the largest overall user, emerging economics causes industrial and domestic water demand to increase tremendously especially in developing countries. One sector that contributes to rapid industrial demand is manufacturing sector. Despite many assessment methods being used in the past, it has been seen that measurement of manufacturing water use performance could only be done for specific manufacturing factory or specific industries. Due to lack of a holistic framework towards assessment water performance in any given manufacturing factory, this paper introduces an indicator-framework called Malaysia Manufacturing Industry Water Benchmarking System (MIWABS). This indicator framework was developed based on relevant sets of indicators arranged under sustainability pillars criteria. MIWABS uses stakeholder-driven approach whereby the established indicators and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) assigning weightage were done through workshops and questionnaires. Rubber glove and semiconductor industries were chosen as demonstration study to validate the indicator-framework. The results highlighted the importance to emphasize on recycling water in manufacturing facilities. Besides that, manufacturing factories shall also explore other water alternatives such as groundwater and river to cater for their factory and production needs to reduce the dependency of potable water by public water operator. It is hoped that MIWABS can give input and policy direction as part of water demand management strategies in Malaysia.


Keywords: Manufacturing water use, Water demand management, Indicator-framework, Sustainability






A Review of COVID-19: The Main Ways of Transmission and some Prevention Solutions, Clinical Symptoms, more Vulnerable Human Groups, Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Nasrin Beheshtkhoo, Mohammad Hassan Alipour, Mostafa Shafiee, Reza Nemati, Reza Baghbani, Farahnaz Behzad, Ali Jangjou, Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani, Mohsen Mehrabi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 884-893 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: COVID-19 is a virus that causes acute respiratory syndrome. Although it is less deadly than other members of its family, i.e. SARS and MERS, its extremely rapid transmission rate has become a widespread concern today. Airborne droplets, environmental surfaces, nasal mucosa, urine and fecal samples are among the routes for the transmission of this virus. Both temperature and humidity factors affect the viability of the virus and its mortality rate. Increasing the ambient temperature makes the virus unstable, while lowering the temperature contributes to its stability. Due to the fact that the main route for the transmission of this virus is the particles containing the virus, observing the social distance of at least one meter, using masks as well as air purification systems can reduce the risk of virus transmission to some extent. This contagious virus has made life difficult for everyone in the community, especially pregnant women, children and the elderly. This viral infection can be diagnosed in many ways, including laboratory tests, molecular tests, the chest X-ray and CT scan. It is worth noting that chest CT scan is more sensitive than other methods and is used as the first line of diagnosis. Despite numerous efforts, no definitive cure has yet been found and isolation of those involved is recognized as first-line treatment. The treatments so far can be divided into three categories: general treatments, pharmacological treatments, and diet. General treatments involve isolation, mask use, oxygen therapy, room ventilation and more. Because of the rapid spread and the many challenges that this viral infection has created, scientists have used many of the drugs that were previously used to treat the influenza, malaria, AIDS, etc., some of which have been used to treat the viral infection. It should be noted that some of these drugs were very effective on some people's bodies. Some of these drugs were even used for pregnant mothers. A proper diet and the use of certain vitamins such as iron, zinc, vitamins A, B, C, E can also be effective in preventing and treating this viral infection. Many efforts to develop a vaccine against this virus infection began about two weeks after the outbreak and the attempts to reach this goal continues.


Keywords: COVID-19, SARS, MERS, Diagnosis, Treatment





Effect of Pretreatment of Biosorbent in Biosorption: A Comparative Study

Ariani Dwi Astuti, Khalida Muda 

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 894-899 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The textile industry generates large amounts of wastewater with strong BOD/COD and salt load, which are often seen in dark colour. An alternative treatment for this type of wastewater is the biosorption, where it involves a passive uptake of both the organic and inorganic compounds, including dye or its derivatives, using non-growing/living microbial mass. Biosorbent pretreatment, autoclaving techniques and combined with the chemical processes, such as acidification, were discussed. The response surface methodology (RSM) is used for researching and developing the effect of pH, contact time, dosage, and biosorbent size in the biosorption process in synthetic textile wastewater using Bjerkandera adusta. When the pH was 4, and the contact time, biosorbent dosage and biosorbent size were 90 minutes, 3000 mg/L and 0.4 mm, respectively, the optimal removal circumstance was able to be verified, at 53.55%, and 81.3% of colour removals were demonstrated through the experimental procedure. This leads to the high acceptance of the experimental findings and model forecast. In the optimisation of experimental parameters, the quadratic model estimated both R2 and R2adj correlation coefficients quite satisfactorily as 0.988, 0.977, 0.926, and 0.783, respectively. It is more effective to combine the autoclaving technique with chemical processes than adopting just the autoclaving method. The two-sided t-test was used to identify any significant variations in the preparation techniques of biosorbents using p < 0.05. The biosorbent study using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and characterisation of surface functional group using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the results obtained. 


Keywords: Bjerkandera adusta, Synthetic textile wastewater, Biosorbent, Response surface methodology, Colour removal efficiency




Mathematical Modelling for Predicting Rejection of Trace Organic Contaminants by the Nanofiltration Membrane NF270

Hai Quang Dang

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 900-907 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This study implemented multiple linear regression model to predict rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) by the nanofiltration (NF) membrane NF270. Multiple regression analysis by the Statgraphics Centurion software were used to find an optimal mathematical modeling that combines interactions between molecular width, molecular height, molecular length, molecular weight and log D of TrOCs for predicting rejection. The result shows a relatively good agreement between the predicted rejection and the observed rejection and an acceptable R-squared correlation coefficient were found (R2 = 91.42 %) for the best model. In conclusion, a unified general multiple linear regression equation was able to predict rejections of TrOCs during nanofiltration with the explanatory variables of molecular width, molecular height, molecular length and molecular weight. Moreover, the present approach is a basis to continue investigation using multiple regression analysis techniques for understanding rejection of TrOCs by the NF membranes.


Keywords: Trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), Nanofiltration, Multiple linear regression, Mathematical modeling, Rejection





Investigation of Thermal Properties of Normal Weight Concrete for Different Strength Classes

Hamed Rezaei Talebi, Brit Anak Kayan, Iman Asadi, Zahiruddin Fitri Bin Abu Hassan

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 908-914 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Concrete is a common construction material which its thermal properties influence on energy consumption of buildings, significantly. The main aim of this study is to investigate the thermal properties of normal weight concrete for different strength classes and the performance of normal weight concrete was measurement by studying the mechanical, physical and thermal properties. Also, develop the correlations between thermal properties with mechanical and physical properties. The results showed that the thermal properties of concrete would be changed based on its different strength classes. The results indicated that the thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and thermal diffusivity of normal weight concrete with a compressive strength in the range of 15 to 62 MPa are in the range of 1.6 to 3.2 W/m.K, 0.92 to 1.16 kJ/kg.K and 0.69 to 1.34 (×10-6 m2 /s), respectively.


Keywords: Normal weight concrete, Thermal conductivity, Thermal diffusivity, Specific heat capacity





Microbial Fuel Cell: An Emerging Technology for Wastewater Treatment and Energy Generation

 Karan Singh and Dharmendra

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 915-924 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are enticing surprising attention due to their dual functions of energy generation and waste removal from wastewaters. Microbial fuel cells use microbial metabolism to convert biochemical metabolic energy into electrical current by using different substrates. Microbes are fed in the anode with the substrate (e.g., domestic, industrial, leachates, etc.) to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cells. It provides an opportunity for the feasible production of energy from bio-degradable organic matters while treating wastewater. In recent years, despite the extensive efforts to improve the efficiency of the cell, energy production is still low, especially in scaled-up systems. However, the construction cost of microbial fuel cells is relatively higher than fossil fuel prices, so it makes doubtful that power generation can ever be competitive with existent energy generation approaches but improvements in power densities, reductions in materials costs may make microbial fuel cells real-world for electricity generation. In-depth review of literature, the study summarizes the role of microorganisms and substrate in the anode chamber. It includes types, components, mechanism and operation of microbial fuel cells. This review highlights various parameters affecting microbial fuel cells, current challenges and applications in the production of electrical energy in a sustainable way.


Keywords: Biodegradable; Metabolic energy; Microbial fuel cell; Nutrient removal; Wastewater treatment





A Critical Review on the Various Pretreatment Technologies for Lignocellulosic Materials

Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Shahabaldin Rezania

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 925-935 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Nowadays, finding new sources of renewable energy is an absolutely essential need for human. Production of biofuel is a suitable way to find such a renewable energy source. Pretreatment is considered as an important step for biofuel production. The aim of this study was to collect recent achievements in pretreatment techniques to have a comprehensive and precious source about this topic. In this study many pretreatment techniques: microwaves, biological, alkaline, ionic liquid, organic solvent, acidic, mechanical, pyrolysis, steam, wet oxidation, ammonia fiber explosion and liquid hot techniques have been introduced. Although several new techniques have been developed to pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses, many obstacles are still needed to be overcome to use these techniques for industrial application.


Keywords: Lignocellulosic biomass, Pretreatment, Biofuel production, Energy production





Nano Bioremediation of Textile Dye Effluent using Magnetite Nanoparticles Encapsulated Alginate Beads

 A. Lincy, P. Jegathambal, Martin Mkandawire, Stephanie MacQuarrie

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 936-946 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Due to increase in urbanization and industrialization, both water consumption and wastewater generation are high. It is a great challenge to treat and provide safe water to the society. The conventional treatment methods are energy and cost intensive. These limitations can be subsided by the application of nanotechnology that shows better efficiency in terms of treatment of wastewater. The use of nanoparticles increases the adsorption of dye and removal efficiency due to their smaller size and increased Surface to Volume (S/V) ratio. In this paper, magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using Reverse Co-Precipitation method and their textile dye removal efficiency using adsorption was studied in treatment of blue dye water. The synthesized magnetite nanoparticles were qualitatively and quantitively characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The observed continuous absorption spectral band by FTIR and UV-Vis spectrum confirmed the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite nanoparticles observed in FESEM exhibited spherical shape with size of 60-100nm. The specific capacitance of the magnetics nanoparticles observed through CV was 1828.5mA/g. The dye adsorption potential of magnetite nanoparticles was studied by conducting experiments on the encapsulated alginate magnetic nanoparticles beads by varying operational parameters like contact time, pH, adsorbent dosage and dye concentration. From the results, 82.4% removal of azo blue dye was observed with the initial dye concentration of 25 ppm. Finally, the operational parameters were optimized based on maximum removal of blue dye.


Keywords: Nanotechnology, Magnetite, Beads, Adsorption, Blue dye





Determination of the Waste Production and Level of Willingness to Waste Separation in the Students Living in Boarding Houses in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Kasam M.T, Fajri M. Iresha, Eko Siswoyo

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 947-951 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Boarding houses (student-rented rooms) in Indonesia are generally grouped into two different types, namely Non-Exclusive Boarding House (NEBH) and Exclusive Boarding House (EBH). The different types of boarding house will affect the patterns of solid waste generation. This study aims to determine the level of participation and willingness of the students living in these two types of boarding houses to separate their waste. Based on findings of this study, a waste management system can be designed, including the analysis of solid waste generation, waste composition, and characteristics of residents. The research began with waste generation sampling in the boarding houses around campus of three universities in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The residents’ characteristics were identified using questionnaires. The weight and volume of waste generated in EBH were found slightly larger than NEBH namely 0.36 and 0.31 kg/person/day (weight) and 2.38 and 2.04 liter/person/day (volume), respectively. Regarding the waste composition, a slight difference was observed for organic waste (19.30% and 17.51%) and plastic waste (28.08% and 27.74%) for the NEBH and EBH, respectively. In addition, the level of willingness to separate the waste for students in NEBH was higher than those in EBH with scores of 61% and 41%, respectively. It was concluded that students in NEBH generate more waste than EBH, especially for two main types of waste, but the level of participation and willingness to waste separation in NEBH residents was higher than EBH residents. The results of this study are essential to be considered in developing an effective model of boarding houses regarding waste management system in Indonesia and other developing countries.


Keywords: Boarding house, solid waste generation, solid waste management





Screening, Characterization and Production of Thermostable Alpha-Amylase Produced by a Novel Thermophilic Bacillus megaterium Isolated from Pediatric Intensive Care Unit

Seyyedeh Narjes Abootalebi, Amir Saeed, Ahmad Gholami, Milad Mohkam, Aboozar Kazemi, Navid Nezafat, Seyyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Seyyed Alireza Hashemi, Eslam Shorafa

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 952-960 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This study aimed to isolate the thermophilic Bacillus strain capable of producing a high amount of thermo-stable α-amylase.The screening and isolation of amylase producing bacteria were done on selective media. The identification of bacteria was made using routine biochemical and molecular 16s rRNA techniques. The amylase activity assay was performed by using dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method, and finally, the optimum temperature, Km (Michaelis constant) and maximum rate of reaction (Vmax) of the enzyme was calculated. Results: The newly thermo-stable amylolytic enzymes of Bacillus megaterium designated AGH01was isolated from pediatric intensive care unit through a selective enrichment procedure. This isolate was identified based on biochemical and morphological traits along with 16s rRNA partial sequence analysis. This isolate showed the highest amylolytic activity (19.2 U/mL after 24 h) as compared to other isolates. The optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was achieved at 90°C and pH 7.0. At this condition, Km of the enzyme for the degradation of starch was 3.36 mg/mL and (Vmax) was 0.177 mM/min. The enzyme was stable at 90°C and 80°C in 33.4% and 35.7% of its original activity at pH 7.0 after 30 minutes and 9.1% and 48% after 60 minutes of incubation, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed the enzyme had no disulfide bond and had a 35 amino acid signal sequence. The aliphatic index (69.14) and grand average of hydropathicity index (-0.399) calculated by ProtParam server indicated that this α-amylase may be stable for a wide range of temperature and has excellent solubility in water.Conclusions: The high-thermal stable enzyme produced by Bacillus megaterium AGH01 could be considered merit as an excellent alternative source for bioethanol production and pharmaceutical applications. Moreover, our data provides such beneficial information for a better industrial formulation with proper stability in extreme conditions.


Keywords: Amylase, Amylolytic activity, Bacillus megaterium, Thermo-stability





Assessment of Physical-Chemical Water Quality Characteristics and Heavy Metals Content of Lower Johor River, Malaysia

Y.Q. Liang, K.V. Annammala, P. Martin, E.L. Yong, L.S. Mazilamani, M.Z.M. Najib

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 961-966 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Surface freshwater quality has received more attention in recent years, which is since fresh water is regarded as a limited resource and many threats can negatively affect the water quality. The expansion of urban pollution in the Johor River in Johor State, Malaysia, has been induced by different anthropogenic activities being carried out, which bring potential risks to freshwater quality. The aim of this study was to quantify the physical-chemical properties of water and heavy metal concentrations at 11 sampling sites (S 01-S 11) selected along the Johor River. Eight water quality parameters were determined, and nine heavy metals were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Findings revealed that total suspended solid concentration and pH of the water samples satisfied the Class II outlined in the National Water Quality Standards for Malaysia (NWQSM). Most of the ammonia concentrations satisfied the Class II except at stations S 01 to S 03. The nutrient concentration (nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate) were found quite low. On the other hand, the range of certain elements such as Fe (1.75 to 6.90 ppm), Cu (0.06 to 1.34 ppm), and As (0.01 to 0.29 ppm) was found to exceed the Class II standard at all stations. A strong relationship between TSS, As, and Cu concentrations was found, which may be due to Cu and As carried along the river by suspended sediments, coming from the anthropogenic sources into the catchment areas. The results indicated that the river water quality is extremely sensitive to the local land use and practices. Further detailed research into the concentration of the elements in storm water could be the next research focus.


Keywords: Water Quality, Heavy Metal, National Water Quality Standard in Malaysia, River Water





Study of Eco-Processed Pozzolan Characterization as Partial Replacement of Cement

Raihana Farahiyah Abd Rahman, Hidayati Asrah, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman, Abdul K. Mirasa, M A A Rajak

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 967-970 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Eco-processed pozzolan (EPP) is a sustainable product recycled from spent bleaching earth (SBE). It is recently used as a blended cement. The pretreatment method of palm oil generates SBE as waste material in the refinery plant. Despite sending the SBE to the landfill, which can lead to environmental pollution, it is extracted to produce sustainable products. The physical, chemical, mineralogical, and microstructural characteristics of EPP were analysed. Furthermore, the conventional cement was substituted with 20% of EPP by cement mass in mortar. The compressive strength of mortar containing EPP was determined for the assessment of strength activity index (SAI) of EPP. EPP consists mainly of silica (SiO2), and the value of SiO2, aluminium oxide (Al2O3), and iron oxide (Fe2O3) combination was 68.98% which is more than 50%. According to the ASTM C618 standard, EPP could be categorised in the Class C pozzolan. The major crystalline phase of EPP was α-quartz. Based on the micrograph image, EPP possesses some relatively spherical, irregular shaped, and agglomeration of its particles. At an early curing age, the compressive strength of the mortar was increased with the inclusion of 20% of EPP. A high value of SAI can be reached by mortar specimen with 20% of EPP.


Keywords: Eco-processed pozzolan, Pozzolan, Strength activity index





Potential Use of Fruit Seeds and Plant Leaves as Coagulation Agent in Water Treatment

Khalida Muda, Nur Shahidah Aftar Ali, Ummu Nusaibah Abdullah, Ahmad Bazli Sahir

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 971-977 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The treatment of turbid water by coagulation-flocculation was found to be the most common and cost-effective method. Over the years, chemical coagulants have been widely applied to enhance the coagulation process. However, the utilisation of chemical coagulants exhibits several drawbacks, including generation of voluminous sludge and being non-biodegradable as well as toxic compounds to aquatic life. Due to global concerns over the harmful effects, the application of natural coagulants is a promising solution. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the potential of plant-based natural coagulants to replace chemical coagulants for water treatment. Fruit seeds (Carica papaya, Nephelium mutabile, and Euphoria malaiense seeds) and plant leaves (Pandanus, Centella asiatica, and Cymbopogon citratus leaves) were selected as natural coagulants in this study. A series of jar tests were performed using raw water from a water treatment plant. The effects of pH and coagulant dosage were evaluated based on the turbidity removal and coagulation activity. Of all the examined plants, the Carica papaya seeds appeared to be the best coagulant for water treatment. An optimum dose of 130 mg/L of this coagulant resulted in a 95.5% turbidity removal and 94% coagulation activity, at optimum pH 7.5. Overall, this study reveals the potential use of fruit seeds and plant leaves as coagulation agents in the water treatment process.


Keywords: Natural Coagulants, Turbidity, Coagulation Activity, Carica papaya seeds, Water treatment





Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Removal Applying Phytoremediation System to Water Environment: An Overview

Zainab Mat Lazim, Salmiati, Abdul Rahman Samaluddin, Mohd Razman Salim, Nor Zaiha Arman

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 978-984 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The widespread use of silver nanomaterials potentially harms the health of the whole ecosystem, especially the aquatic environment. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are directly released into environment from washing machines, colloidal silver medicines, and other AgNPs-containing products. Review of ecotoxicological studies and the prediction of the future environmental concentrations (PEC) shows the presence of a toxic level of AgNPs in the surface water and reveals their effect and risks to aquatic organisms. However, the AgNPs transport behavior, their transformation in the natural environment, and how this behavior poses a risk to human and ecosystem health are significant issues that have not been clearly known; thus, there is a pressing need to investigate them and provide effective solutions. This study reviews the potential of macrophytes to remove AgNPs in aqueous solutions. It also discusses the impact of AgNPs on water environments, their toxicity to aquatic organisms, and the phytoremediation functions.


Keywords: Silver nanoparticle; Macrophyte; Phytoremediation; Surface water





Quality and Environmental Conservation of Coastal Ecosystems in Purworejo, Indonesia

 Widodo Brontowiyono, Kasam, Lupiyanto R, Nugrahayu Q, Widyastuti A, Harmawan F

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 985-987 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The quality of coastal ecosystems in Purworejo - Central Java tends to degrade due to pollution and environmental degradation. This study aims to identify indicators, including soil ecosystem, water quality, wastewater, and seawater quality. The methods include geo-electrical survey, field observation, and laboratory test. The results show that the area is polluted and degraded. Salinity distribution varies between 0.01 and 0.13 due to geological factors and seawater intrusion. Another finding shows that TSS reaches 1000-13.000 mg/L with 162-551 mg/L BOD, 2.24-4.77 mg/L Sulfide, and 0.61-2.06 mg/L Nitrite allegedly caused by shrimp farming activities. Clean water sources are polluted as total coliforms reach 46x103 – 195x103 MPN/100 ml. Seawater quality is also degraded with 8.96 pH. Pb, Cd, Cr, and Hg exceed the standard. This study recommends that, for a sustainable coastal area, shrimp farming should apply the best practice management with a wastewater treatment plant. Such area requires sanitation facilities to minimize pollution by coliforms. Firm control should be performed on industrial activities that contaminate seawater with heavy metals. Clean water pumping through wells should not exceed 16.82 m of depth to anticipate seawater intrusion.


Keywords: Pollution, Degradation, Conservation, Coastal area





Start-up of Modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor for the Treatment of Landfill Leachate by Using Granular Sludge

Imran Ahmad, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Norazli Othman, Norhayati Abdullah  and Nithiya Arumugam

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 985-987 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The objective of this study was to valuate the start-up performance of the Modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (MABR) system by using granular sludge treating landfill leachate. Anaerobic reactor start-up is a complex process as it depends on the substrate characteristics, working conditions, inoculum and reactor configuration. To reduce the start-up time and have better operational parameters control in anaerobic processes, important factors are needed to enhance the high-rate anaerobic systems efficiency. Sludge granulation was indeed an achievement in anaerobic wastewater treatment technology and has greatly enhanced its efficiency and applicability. It holds many advantages, such as mutual defence against antagonists, efficient reactor operation without sludge washout, and effluent with low suspended solids.  Granules are the functional units which comprise different microorganisms that are required for the methanogenic degradation of organic matter. Results from this study showed a successful start-up of the MABR system at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.0875 kgCOD/m3/d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of  four days. During this period the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was 99 % and the gas production increased steadily from 0.013 L/d to 0.021 L/d.

Keyword: Landfill leachate, Modified anaerobic baffled reactor (MABR), Granular sludge, Meat extract




Mitigation of Environmental Degradation in Merapi Volcano Disaster-Prone Area: A Case Study of Klaten District

Widodo Brontowiyono, Lupiyanto R., J. Hamidin, Julianto E. A, Widyastuti A, Harmawan F. and Supriyo

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 988-998 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Eruptions of Mount Merapi have provided economic benefits, including increased soil fertility and abundant sand and stone. As time goes by, mining has been spreading to yards, getting uncontrolled and disregarding rules as well as good management. As a result, environmental degradation, particularly land criticality, is highly likely to occur. This study was conducted to identify the levels of land criticality in the slope of Merapi. The output was recommendations for land rehabilitation to achieve sustainable development. The results showed that the study area with highly critical land reached an extent of 696.43 Ha or 4.48%. Critical, medium, and potentially critical lands covered an area of 133.02 Ha or 0.85%, 80.35 Ha or 0.52 %, and 527.17 Ha, respectively. Meanwhile, uncritical land had the largest extent, reaching 14.123 Ha.   Recommendations for critical lands include vegetation and civil engineering methods.


Keywords: Mitigation, Environmental degradation, Critical land, Merapi Volcano





Model of Innovative Wayang Wong for Millenial Generation to Meet 4.0 Industrial Revolution Era in Bali

Ni Made Ruastiti , I Komang Sudirga, I Gede Yudarta

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 999-1004 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: This study aims to develop an innovative Wayang Wong Performing Arts model for millennial to meet the 4.0 industrial revolution in Bali. This research was inspired by the imbalance between assumptions and reality in the field. Supposedly, Wayang Wong, as one of the local wisdom in the form of performing arts, is in demand in the community. However, the reality is different. This research was conducted by integrating qualitative and quantitative methods through several stages of development. The research model design was applied by means of participatory observation, and in-depth interviews targeting millennials (teenagers and children) in Bali. The conclusion of the research is a model of Innovative Wayang Wong that was developed by a new perspective regarding the millennial generation need with a new creation and new meanings. The Innovative Wayang Wong performing arts is expected to have an impact on the sustainability of this performance art, which will indirectly strengthen the children’s national character


Keyword: Model, Innovative Wayang Wong, Millenial Generation, 4.0 Industrial Revolutions





The Realm of Biopolymers and Their Usage: An Overview

 Jyoti Aggarwal, Swati Sharma, Hesam Kamyab, and Ashok Kumar

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1005-1016 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Biopolymers are emerging as an advanced business sector progressively and gained the attention of researchers and industrialists. Polymeric materials are useful due to their flexibility, reusability and toughness nature. These biopolymers can be the amalgamated with various kinds of natural and synthetic materials to synthesize polymeric composites. Such composite materials have comparable properties to oil‐based polymers. Biopolymers also play an essential role in the drug and pharmaceutical industry. These can be utilized for industrial purposes, for instance, to regenerate damage, medication administration in addition to regenerative medicine to achieve, low immunogenicity, high pharmacological activity. Several biopolymers are described in this article. There are various mechanisms to produce biopolymers. There are diverse forms of biopolymers that originated from microbes, animals and plants. Biopolymers play a significant role in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries. These are extensively used in medical equipment, cosmetics, confectionery, wastewater treatments, food additives, textiles and in bio-sensing applications. Numerous possible applications, along with the production form of biopolymers, are reviewed in this article.

Keywords: Biopolymers, Circular economy, Keratin, Collagen, Cellulose





Methane Production from the Digestion of Thermally Treated Food Waste at 80°C

Farizah Fadzil , Farihah Fadzil , Siti Mariam Sulaiman , A'isyah Mardhiyyah Shaharoshaha, Roslinda Seswoya

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1017-1022 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Food waste is the most suitable feedstock for anaerobic digestion. However, methane yield from the digestion of food waste is low. Therefore thermal pretreatment serves as the best solution. Also, the effect of thermal pretreatment on food waste (Malaysian dietary) before anaerobic digestion has low documentation. Hence this research aims to analyze the methane production and its kinetics from the digestion of thermally treated food waste. The result showed that thermal treatment improves the bioavailability of food waste, subsequently improve the methane production of food waste. The ultimate methane yield for thermally treated food waste at 80°C was 883.08 CH4/gVS higher than untreated food waste. The kinetic parameters observed from Modified Gompertz modeling were slightly lower from the laboratory data for both substrates. Thus, thermal pretreatment undoubtedly improved the anaerobic digestion of food waste.


Keywords: Anaerobic, Food waste, Thermal, AMPTS, Gompertz





Sorption of Malachite Green from Aqueous Solution using Typha australis Leaves as a Low Cost Sorbent

Abdoulaye Demba N’diaye, Youssef Aoulad El Hadj Ali, Ould El Moustapha Abdallahi, Mohamed Abdallahi Bollahi, Mostafa Stitou, Mohamed Kankou and Driss Fahmi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1023-1028 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Malachite Green (MG) is a carcinogenic and mutagenic dye which is harmful for human and animal cells; its discharge through wastewater creates major environmental problems. For this reason, we have used Typha australis leaves, an abundant and available plant along the Senegal River for removing MG from aqueous solution. The adsorption equilibrium isotherms of MG onto Typha australis leaves as low cost sorbent were studied and modeled. In order to determine the best fit isotherm, the experimental data were fitted to the two-parameter isotherms (Langmuir, Freundlich and Jovanovic) and three-parameter isotherms (Sips, Redlich – Peterson and Toth) by nonlinear method. The best fitting isotherm was found to be the Langmuir isotherm. The monolayer adsorption capacities were found to be 85.21 and 56.88 mg g-1 at 21.4 and 31.4 °C, respectively. This homogeneity was also confirmed by the constants of Sips and Redlich–Peterson isotherms. The present study showed that the Typha australis leaves can be effectively used as low cost sorbent for the removal of the MG from its aqueous solution.


Keywords: Malachite Green, Typha australis, Senegal River, Isotherms, Nonlinear





Drilling Fluids: Presence of Hazardous BTEXs and Crystalline Silica

Lakmun Chan, Nithiya Arumugam, Sathiabama T. Thirugnana and Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1029-1035 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In the oil and gas industry occupational health risks due to drilling fluids is severe. Mixing room, shale shaker room and drill floor are sites where workers are highly exposed to air pollutants, hazardous dust and even substances generated via drilling fluids associated activities. Barite, calcium carbonate and linear paraffin or olefin-based oil are three types of chemical that are greatly used in huge quantities to prepare drilling fluids. These drilling fluids contain hazardous substances and pose health risks. Due to the occupational health risk, Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA Europe and USA have issued guidelines for the permissible exposure limit (PEL) to be at 5 mg/m3 for barium sulphate, 10 mg/m3 for calcium carbonate, 0.05 mg/m3 for crystalline silica and 0.05 mg/m3 for oil mists. Therefore, this study identified the presence of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) ionic mists and crystalline silica in the drilling fluids. The grain size distribution of additives used in the drilling fluids was also determined.  The results showed the presence of BTEX and crystalline silica based on random sampling. Therefore, the existing control measures are necessary to reduce the occupational health risks. As a control measure, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) are necessary to be introduced for the automation of drilling fluids associated activities.


Keywords: Drilling fluids; Occupation health risk; Hazardous; BTEX; Barium sulphate





A Combination of Waste Biomass Activated Carbon and Nylon Nanofiber for Removal of Triclosan from Aqueous Solutions

Nor Khoriha Eliysa Mohd Khori, Salmiati, Tony Hadibarata, Zulkifli Yusop

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1036-1045 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Triclosan (TCS) is one of the biocide used as antibacterial and antifungal agent to kill and hinder the growth of bacteria and also it is used in many personal care and health care products. However, TCS can cause health and environmental problems such as environmental pollutions, acute toxicity, etc. The aim of this study is to investigate the removal of TCS from aqueous solution by combining the coconut pulp waste (Cocos nuciefera) activated carbon (AC) with nylon 6,6 membrane. To this end, first, the effects of physico-chemical characteristics of the membrane were studied. The nylon 6,6 membrane (14 wt.%] was prepared using electrospinning machine with injection rate at 0.4 mL/h, tip-to-collector distance at 15 cm, rotation speed at 1000 rpm, and applied voltage at 26 kV. The parameters studied for the membrane during the adsorption test were contact time, adsorbent dosage, agitation speed, initial TCS concentration, pH, and temperature of the TCS solution. The filtration test was done using flat sheet membrane test machine at pressure 1.0 bar. The characteristics of the membrane were analysed using the FESEM and FTIR tests. Based on the obtained results, the nylon 6,6 membrane can remove 90.2% of TCS within 5 minutes; the removal rate increased to 100% in less than 5 minutes after the membrane was combined with AC. This study proved that the combination of AC and nylon 6,6 membrane is able to maximize the TCS removal from water.   


Keywords: Triclosan; Activated carbon; Coconut pulp waste; Nylon 6,6 membrane





Environmental Sustainability Assessment Approach for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

Siti Nur Atikah Yahya, Norhayati Abdullah, Norasikin Ahmad Ludin, Ali Yuzir, Shaza Eva Mohamad and Iwamoto Koji

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1046-1053 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Malaysia began introducing several sustainability practices to be able to fulfil requirements of foreign legislation that demands stringent measures in minimizing environmental impact of products and services throughout their life cycles. This includes participation during 2006 for the National Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) program to support national eco-labelling program. This voluntary-based action correlates with the government's aim to achieve United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 12 and 13 which are responsible consumption and production and climate action in reducing carbon footprint while using processes that are environmentally friendly. This study demonstrates in general how LCA approach is applied to palm oil milling and refinery to determine the potential environmental impacts on these processes by using ReCiPe 2016 method and SimaPro 8.4.0 software. Primary data were retrieved via site-visit to a palm oil mill and a refinery plant. Data gap were supported by database from previous studies. Based on the findings, palm oil milling contributes the most significant impact which were global warming potential (GWP), freshwater eutrophication (FEP) and fossil fuel scarcity (FFP) at midpoint level. Alternative scenario of full utilization of biomass waste and biogas capture for palm oil milling showed a range of 10% to 20% reduction for ecosystem quality (ED) while 20% to 30% reduction for resource availability (RA) and human health (HH) at endpoint level. The survey on perception of LCA implementation at industrial level indicated that it is still uncommon due to lack of application and insufficient knowledge among industry players on its utilization.


Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Palm oil production, Sustainability, Sustainable development goals





Removal of Fluoride Ions from Drinking Water by Activated Alumina and Activated Charcoal

Habiba Lebrahimi, Mohammed Fekhaoui, Abdelkabir Bellaouchou

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1054-1059 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The pollution of drinking waters by ions fluorides caused by industrial and natural activities, causes major problems for human health, what imposes to think seriously of the treatment of these waters. Experiments are carried out in the laboratory to remove fluoride ions in water, based on the adsorption process by activated alumina and activated carbon with a change in different parameters influencing the retention rate such as pH, amount of adsorbent and contact time. Good defluoridation requires a contact time between 30 min and 60 min with a retention rate of 53.51% and 67% for activated alumina, 50.27% and 56.35% for activated carbon. The retention rate for 3g adsorbent is 56% for activated alumina and 18.91% for activated carbon, this value increases with increasing adsorbent quantity for acid pH. According to these experiments the retention rate of fluoride ions by activated alumina is higher than that of activated carbon, which makes activated alumina treatment the most responsive for the removal of fluoride ions in water. in this work they try to find an appropriate method to eliminate the excess of ions fluorides in underground water after a study made on these ions in waters of the region of Khouribga in Morocco as phosphaté region the presence of ions of which results points out fluoride with a broad broadcasting of the illness of fluorosis to the population. According to tries made in the laboratory one there found that alumina speeded up and activated charcoal is very efficient for this action.


Keywords: Fluoride, Activated alumina, Activated carbon, Water treatment, Defluoridation, Adsorption






An Overview Study of Jatropha Curcas as a Sustainable Green Energy and its Economic Impacts to Local Farmers in Kano State, Nigeria

Mukhtar Sabiu Yahuza, Hüseyin Gökçekus, Sadiq Mahmoud Ahmad, Nura Yunusa

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1060-1068 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The planet is dying due to so many human activities that are harmful to our environment, such as cutting down trees without growing new ones, carbon emissions through the use of combustion engines and burning firewood etc. As such, these anthropogenic activities pollute our environment and compromising human sustainability. These harmful activities were carried-out either deliberate or unknown to people in search of energy, survival and luxuries of life. Therefore, there is strong need to find sustainable source of energy that is renewable and environmentally friendly for continual existence of man on this planet. Biodiesel can be extracted from Jatropha Curcas L, which serve as a source of renewable energy. In this paper; the awareness, processing method, economic and medicinal benefits of Jatropha Curcas in Nigeria was discussed. The paper gives priority to three different studies, with addition of regression analysis. The research concluded that there is high rate of awareness of Jatropha Curcas plant, mainly used in live fencing, homestead fencing and farm boundaries mainly in Kano state, Nigeria; though, most of the farmers were not aware of its benefits such as biodiesel oil, medicinal uses, anti-desertification features, soap making among many others, but they are willing to produce the biodiesel from it. The research also recommends awareness campaign and government incentives in the cultivation, production and marketing the biodiesel in Nigeria. 

Keywords: Biodiesel; Biofuel; Fuel; Fossil; Jatropha Curcas; Kano state; Nigeria; Renewable energy





Evaluation of Biochemical Parameters in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetics in Rabat District of Morocco

Miloudi Hilali, Asmae Tantane, Mohamed Rhajaoui, Hanae El Monfalouti and Badr Eddine Kartah

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1069-1074 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Diabetes represents a major public health problem and exposes to serious complications such as cardiovascular, renal, ocular, neurological diseases and sometimes wounds which are difficult to heal leading in the most extreme cases to amputation. The objective of this work is therefore to carry out an evaluation of certain biological parameters (fasting blood sugar, urea, total cholesterol, HDL, creatinine, uric acid), and hematological (white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets) in diabetic patients. the rabat-sale region and to find out which type of diabetic is the most distributed in this region so that in the end we will raise awareness among the entire population to make periodic analyzes in order to draw lessons and offer recommendations. The study of this work focused on 40 diabetic patients, including 8 type 1 diabetic patients and 32 type 2 diabetic patients. After that we took blood samples for biological analyzes. According to the study, we found that the number of type 2 diabetics (80%) is higher than that of type 1 diabetics (20%), the number of women is greater than the number of men and the majority diabetic patients in our population are hypertensive (70%). Our results also show that in type 2 diabetics the average rates of all parameters (fasting blood sugar, urea, creatinine and uric acid) are lower than those recorded in type 1 diabetics. Total cholesterol and HDL in type 2 diabetics are higher than those recorded in type 1 diabetics. This study shows that our patients do not have a problem of bacterial infection or rheumatism because almost all the values ​​of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total cholesterol and the level of white blood cells are normal and also shows, the absence of cardiovascular and renal complications. But our study also showed that total cholesterol, urea and creatinine increase with age, and people between the ages of 60 and 75 are more at risk than others. The study of this work shows that the number of women who have diabetes is greater than the number of men and most of these people have chronic diseases, so to avoid serious complication on a health scale, we must therefore to sensitize and educate the populations to make periodic analyzes, to make sport activities and food rigime to finally reduce the rate of diabetic diseases.


Keywords: Diabetes, Complications, Biochemical, Fasting glucose, Urea, Total cholesterol, HDL, Creatinine, Uric acid





Study of the Chemical Composition of Olive Oil According to Its Mode of Extraction and Its Age from the Olive Tree

Miloudi Hilali, Nadia Maata, Hanae El Monfalouti and Badr Eddine Kartah

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1075-1080 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: A comparative study of the chemical composition of olive oil was carried out in the Massmouda district of Ouezzane, a city in northern Morocco. It was made in order to study the influence of the extraction temperature and the age of the olive tree on the chemical composition of olive oil. To carry out this work, we selected four samples of olive oil of the same kind (Moroccan Picholine), from the same place and extracted at different temperatures, but these samples were collected from olive trees of different ages. For this we performed physico-chemical analyzes such as acidity, peroxide index, absorbance in ultraviolet, fatty acids, sterols and triglycerides. The result of this work shows that the temperature of olive oil extraction can increase the peroxide index, acidity, the percentage of oleic fatty acid (C18: 1), the percentage of stigmasterol, and the percentages of triglycerides OOO, POO and can decrease the percentage of fatty acid such as: C18: 0, C18: 2 (vitamin F) and the percentages of triglycerides LLL, LOL, OLO, PLO. The results of the chemical composition according to the age of the olive tree reveal that the percentages of oleic acid (C18: 1), the percentages of the triglycerides LLL, OOO are decreased with the increase in the age of the olive tree. On the other hand, our study demonstrates that the percentage of linoleic acid C18: 2 (vitamin F) is increased with the increase of the age of the tree. In the end our study proved the high quality of olive oil extracted by cold mechanical pressing.


Keywords: Olive, Fatty acids, Sterols, Triglycerides, Extraction temperature, Olive age





Formulation of Microorganisms for Cane Plants

Ririen Prihandarini and Sudiarso

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1081-1083 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Sugar is one of the strategic commodities in the Indonesian economy. With an area of around 450 thousand hectares in the 2007-2017 period, the sugar cane-based sugar industry is one of the sources of income for around 900 thousand farmers with the number of workers involved reaching around 1.3 million people. Sugar is also one of the basic needs of the community; the dynamics of sugar prices will have a direct influence on the inflation rate. One effort that can be done to improve sugarcane productivity is to improve soil fertility through sugarcane cultivation techniques by engineering microorganism technology. The potential of nature and the wealth of microorganisms in Indonesia are numerous but have not been explored and utilized to the full Engineering the use of microorganisms has good prospects for restoring land degradation in sugarcane agroecosystem. Microorganism-formulation was designed to get the most suitable microorganism combination for sugarcane. Various types of Nitrogen-fixing microorganisms such as Nitrobacter, Nitrosomonas, Nitrosococcus, and Rhizobium will be combined with Phosphate solvent bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter Thiobacillus, Thrichodema and some decomposer bacteria. Found the most suitable formulation for the growth of sugarcane seedlings, formulation of the microorganisms Sacharomyces (S), Azospirillum sp (A), Azotobacter (Z), Rhizobium (R), Pseudomonas (P), Bacillus dan Trichoderma sp (T) which is formulated in a microorganism technology with the popular name Refresh Microorganism (RIM).


Keywords: Cane, Formulations, Microorganisms





Evaluation of Melatonin Supplementation in Children with Atopic Dermatitis at Aboreesh Hospital, Egypt

 Doaa M. Ali1, Marwa M. Saeed, Walaa Ibrahim and Amany S. Elsayed

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1084-1088 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease commonly associated with poor sleep efficiency. Lower nocturnal melatonin secretion was significantly associated with sleep disturbance in the children with AD, which is a major factor leading to an impaired quality of life (QOL). Evaluation of melatonin role in management of AD associated with sleep disorders to improve quality of life (QOL). Randomized clinical trial used double blind placebo pre and post experimental for intervention group with 43 children in each group who were recruited from dermatology outpatient clinic Aboreesh Hospital. This study included children with AD aged from (5-15) years and involving at least five % of total body surface area. Patients were randomly allocated into Melatonin group and Placebo group. Full history was taken and full general and dermatological examination using scoring atopic dermatitis index were done. Serum melatonin and IgE levels were assessed before and after melatonin supplementation. There was significant difference between pre and post regarding serum Melatonin and IgE except in blood level of melatonin in placebo group. As regard serum level of melatonin become 14pg/ml while before study was 59 pg /ml. But at placebo group started 25.5pg/ml and become 17pg/ml. IgE showed significant difference in pre and post study, as it was 132 before melatonin and become 24 after supplementation of melatonin while in placebo group drop from 129 to 27. There was significant improvement in total eczema score in post study markedly from 69 to two in Melatonin group and from 72 to three in Placebo group. Melatonin supplementation is a safe and effective way to improve the sleep-onset latency and disease severity in children with AD.


Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, Melatonin, SCORAD, QOL, IgE, Family practice






Optimisation of Heavy Metals Uptake from Leachate Using Red Seaweed Gracilaria changii

 Nithiya Arumugam, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Sathiabama T. Thirugnana and Aida Batrisyia Jasni

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1089-1092 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Heavy metal is one of the pollutants in landfill leachate besides organic and inorganic pollutants. The presence of heavy metal is alarming due to its harmful nature; makes it incompatible to be discharged into water bodies before treatments. There are many treatment techniques to remove heavy metals from wastewater, where some of them even involve the coupling of one or more techniques to facilitate and improve the removal efficiency. However, the adsorption using seaweed is one of the known techniques to eliminate heavy metals from wastewater efficiently. Therefore, this study introduced a new adsorbent for heavy metal adsorption: red seaweed Gracilari changii. The effect of operational parameters such as leachate pH (2-7), seaweed dosage (2-10 g), rpm (10-100), and contact time (10-60 min) on the optimum adsorption of Gracilaria changii was studied. At optimum pH (pH=5), seaweed dosage (10g), rpm (rpm=50) and contact time (30min), Gracilaria changii showed maximum metal ion removal of 45%, 35%, and 30% for Fe2+, Cr6+ and Ni2+ respectively. The adsorption was rapid and reached equilibrium after t=30min in general. This optimisation result can be used as a reference to study the effect of different dosages of the adsorbent towards the removal rate.


Keywords: Seaweed, Adsorption, Leachate, Heavy metals, Adsorbent





Artificial Intelligence Approach to Predicting River Water Quality: A Review

 Ariani Dwi Astuti, Azmi Aris, Mohd Razman Salim, Shamila Azman, Salmiati and Mohd Ismid Md Said

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1093-1100 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Precise prediction of the water quality time series may provide directions for early warning of water pollution and help policymakers to manage water resources more effectively. This prediction may reveal the proclivity of the characteristic water quality according to the most recent water quality, shifting, and transformation rule of the pollutant in the watershed. The predictive capability of traditional models is constrained due to variability, complexity, uncertainty, inaccuracy, non-stationary, and the non-linear interactions of the water quality parameters. Since the middle of the 20th century, Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches have been found efficient in bridging gaps, simulating, complementing deficiencies, and improving the precision of the predictive models in terms of multiple evaluation measures for better planning, design, deployment, and handling of multiple engineering systems. This article discusses the state-of-the-art implementation of AI in water quality prediction, the type of AI approaches, the techniques adopted include the knowledge-based system as well as literature and their potential future implementation in water quality modelling and prediction. The study also discusses and presents several possibilities for future research.


Keywords: Water quality simulation; Artificial Intelligence; Knowledge-based system; Review





Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Low Dissolved Oxygen Wastewater Treatment

Nulhazwany Abdul Malik, Khalida Muda, Nur Syamimi Zaidi, Mohamad Darwish, Ahmad Hanis

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1101-1106 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: Activated sludge (AS) system is a biological treatment process that is widely applied in municipal wastewater treatment. Concentration of the dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the important parameters that may influence the performance of AS system. Thus, certain levels of DO in AS systems should be maintained to achieve high efficiency of pollutants removal. However, the energy consumption of aeration stage represents approximately 50% of total demand of AS system. Therefore, reducing aeration energy would improve the feasibility of AS process. This study investigated the enhancement of AS process under low DO condition using electromagnetic field (EMF). The AS was exposed to EMF at intensity of 3 mT with DO concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/L for 24 hours. The impact of EMF on the biomass concentration, settling velocity, sludge volume index and pollutants removal were thoroughly investigated. The results indicated significant improvement in the physical properties of AS exposed to the EMF, which resulted with high accumulation of biomass concentration. The settling velocity and sludge volume index value of the biomass at the end of the experiment were 95 m/h and 72.6 mL/g, respectively. The reactor exposed to EMF under 2 mg/L of DO showed the highest removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (80%) ammonia (97%), nitrite (99%), and total nitrogen (84%). Additionally, it was proved that EMF could enhance the settleability of the AS in the treatment system.


Keywords: Electromagnetic field, Activated sludge, Biomass, Nitrate, Ammonia nitrogen





Self-Stratifying Particulate Coating for Robust Superhydrophobic and Latex-Repellent Surface

Sulaiman Hajeesaeh, Sobiroh Kariyo, Nantakan Muensit, Chalongrat Daengngam

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1107-1111 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: A technique for preparing superhydrophobic and natural latex-repellent surface requires at least two fabrication components: surface roughness, and surface layer with low free energy. Here, multiscale surface roughness in micro-/nanoscales with low surface energy can be simultaneously achieved through the deposition of fluoroalkyl-functionalized silica aggregates. However, the mechanical durability of such film remains problematic. Therefore, third component such as polymer binder was incorporated carefully to improve adhesion between film-substrate interface without deteriorating surface roughness and surface energy. In this work, we employed self-stratifying coating technique to induce vertical phase separation between particles and polymer during film drying, such that the silica aggregates densely accumulated on the top surface, while polymer binder concentrated near the film bottom. The governing transports during film stratification process involve diffusion and convection driven by evaporation. Thus, this research focused on the effect of drying temperature and evaporation rate on the anti-wetting performance of the coating. The results showed that the liquid-repellent properties of the surface improve with increasing drying temperature, indicating the convection-dominated transport that induced substantial particle trap at the film surface. With polymer binder added, the coatings still showed decent superhydrophobic and natural latex-repellent properties with maximum contact angles 166.4°±0.6° and 157.5°±0.5°, as well as minimum sliding angles 2.7°±0.3° and 2.9°±0.2° for water and natural latex respectively. Also, AFM result revealed that significant surface roughness of 581 ± 18 nm was still achievable even at high blending mass ratio of polymer binder up to half of the silica weight.


Keywords: Superhydrophobic, Natural latex-repellent surface, Multiscale roughness, Self-stratifying coating





Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Cefixime Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Granular Ferric Hydroxide

Roqiyeh Mostafaloo, Mahdi Asadi-Ghalhari, Rahim Aali, Fatemeh sadat Tabatabaei, Elaheh Sadat, Amin Kishipour

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1112-1117 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In general, very limited information is available on the adsorption of antibiotics by granular ferric hydroxide (GFH) in an aqueous solution.  In order to gain an understanding of the adsorption process of cefixime by GFH, this study was conducted in a controlled batch system and using central composite design by response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of pH, initial Cefixime concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time on the adsorption rates of cefixime were investigated. The results of optimization of the variables derived in the initial pH = 6, cefixime concentration were 8 mg L–1, adsorbent dosage = 1 g L–1 and contact time = 50 min, and maximum removal efficiency of 99.63%. According to RSM, this study follows the Quadratic model (R2 = 0.970). Considering the good quality, economic and feasibility aspects, adsorption of CFX with GFH is recommended as a successful method of CFX removal from various aqueous solutions.


Keywords: Adsorption, Cefixime, Granular ferric hydroxide, Aqueous solution





Significant Factors Affecting the Thermo-Chemical De-vulcanization Efficiency of Tire Rubber

Anuwat Worlee, Sitisaiyidah Saiwari, Wilma Dierkes, Siti Salina Sarkawi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1118-1123 | PDF | HTML 


Abstract: In this study, the influence of the molecular structure of the rubber, the carbon black loading and de-vulcanization time and temperature on the thermo-chemical de-vulcanization efficiency of whole tire rubber was investigated by correlating sol fraction and crosslink density (Horikx-Verbruggen method). Differences in molecular structure influence the de-vulcanization mechanisms of rubbers as well as the efficiency. Increasing carbon black loadings result in higher crosslink densities due to a deactivation of the de-vulcanization aid. Variation of de-vulcanization temperature and time results in different degrees of heat accumulation in the rubber during de-vulcanization and thus leads to different de-vulcanization efficiencies.


Keywords: Tire rubber; De-vulcanization; Recycling; Carbon black





Earnings Management, Corporate Governance and Corporate Performance Among Malaysian Listed Companies

Mojtaba Nasiri, Suresh Ramakrishnan

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1124-1131| PDF | HTML 


Abstract: There are several explanations for lack of transparency regarding financial reporting however the most significant is earnings management activities that managers follow. Admittedly, managers manipulate accounting information by using EM (Earnings Management) practices to achieve certain results. Corporate governance, which its primary objective is to spot possible structures in which a corporation's shareholders have greater power and control over managers to protect and further their rights, and it has recently brought an interesting topic to researchers and policymakers around the world. Most research has emphasized the relationship between corporate governance and company performance, but still, only a few investigations have looked at the moderator characteristic of corporate governance on corporate performance from different perspectives. This study aims at investigating whether corporate governance, utilizing data from listed companies in Bursa Malaysia, impacts the relationship between earnings management and the firm ’s performance. This study utilizes panel data analysis and uses FTSE Russell data by applying the intersection method to the constituents of the FTSE Top 100 Bursa Malaysia from 2011 to 2015.  The findings show that DAs have a considerable impact on the ROA, ROE, Tobin's Q and EVA of companies in a poor governance system. This research reveals that managers in weakly managed companies are far more likely to misuse accounting powers than in well managed companies, leading to a decline in corporate performance. Managers are likely utilizing DAs to modify the financial profits; however, this produces a rather more significant reversing impact in corporate interest in the period ahead. Likewise, DAs inside an efficient governance structure are strongly and substantially related to firm performance.


Keywords: Corporate governance; Firm performance; Earnings management





Gaming Industry Trends in new Generation Specialist Training in University Environment

Olga F. Piralova, Sergey A. Gerasimenko, Vladimir V. Kuznetsov, Olga V. Popova, George V. Subbotin, Olga G. Kolomyts, Nikolay A. Mashkin

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1132-1135| PDF | HTML 


Abstract: The research urgency is caused by the search for effective approaches to interactive transformation of a new generation specialist training process in the conditions of innovative interaction between educational environment of the University and the video game sphere. In this regard, this article is aimed at revealing the features and technologies of implementing priority trends in the gaming industry in the training of a new generation specialists in the educational environment of the University. In the course of pedagogical monitoring – the leading method of research, the structure and content of trends in the gaming industry in the interactive transformation of University student training are determined. The article reveals the modern understanding of the concept of the gaming industry, defines its priorities in the fields of education. The authors have established the structure and content of the classifier of functional posts in the gaming industry in the training of a new generation specialist in higher education. Based on the results of the research, an interactive model for implementing priority trends in the gaming industry in the training of a new generation specialists in the educational environment of a University is substantiated. The materials of the article can be useful in the development and implementation of various methods and practices in the services of the gaming industry and in the educational process of the University.


Keywords: Game industry, Gamer, Typology of video and computer games, ESports, New generation specialist, Trends in the game industry, Educational environment





Application of an Interdisciplinary Approach to the Implementation of Projects to Create a Comfortable Environment for Human Life

Timur Ablyazov

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1136-1139 | PDF | HTML 

Abstract: In modern conditions of globalization and urbanization, the development of territories is reaching a qualitatively new level associated with the mainstreaming of digital technologies in the human environment. Nowadays, we understand the development of the territory as comprehensive improvement of systems and infrastructures in order to increase the comfort, quality and safety of life of the population. An interdisciplinary approach plays a key role in the development of territories, since the successful implementation of such projects requires the involvement of specialists from different fields to develop an integrated solution that meets the needs of the population to the possible extent. The article explains the relevance of applying an interdisciplinary approach to the development of territories, analyzes the world experience of interdisciplinary interaction in solving problems of creating a comfortable environment for human life. It considers the existing approaches of interdisciplinary interaction in the development of territories within the framework of concepts such as “smart city” and “programmable city”, and also reveals the problems of the development of territories that can be solved through the application of an interdisciplinary approach. As a result of work the principles of interdisciplinary interaction in the implementation of projects for the development of territories were developed. The ways to solve existing problems in the field of the development of territories within the framework of applying an interdisciplinary approach were proposed.

 Keywords: Territorial development, Interdisciplinary approach, “Smart city”, Digital technologies, Urbanization




Structural Information from Ratio Bands in the FTIR Spectra of Long Chain and Branched Alkanes in Petrodiesel Samples

Flora Ferati

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1140-1143 | PDF | HTML  

Abstract: FTIR is a widely used equipment for determining the chemical structure of organic materials.  Vibrational analysis was employed to characterize hydrocarbon structure from which depends their quality and environmental effect. The results showed that the FTIR spectrum of petrodiesel allowed structural information about degree of branched or aliphatic chain hydrocarbons. The ratios of aliphatic carbons especially CH2/CH3 (A2920/A2950) and A1376/(A1376+A1460) appeared to be suitable indicators for identifying type of alkanes present in petrodiesel samples.


Keywords: FTIR, Petrodiesel, Hydrocarbon structure





Adsorption Studies on the Removal of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (VI)) from Aqueous Solution using Black Gram Husk

Sunil Rajoriya, Ahlaam Haquiqi, Bhawna Chauhan, Girish Tyagi, Avdesh Singh Pundir, Ajay Kumar Jain, Divya Agarwal

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1144-1150 | PDF | HTML  

Abstract: In the current work, black gram husk (BGH) as an effective adsorbent was used to remove the hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) from aqueous solution in the batch mode. The characterization of adsorbent was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to identify the functional groups present on the surface of BGH. The study was done with synthetic wastewater having a Cr (VI) concentration of 100 mg/L. Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of various process parameters such as solution pH (1 – 7), adsorbent dosage (0.5 – 1.5 g/100 mL), initial Cr (VI) concentration (100 – 200 mg/L), and contact time (0 – 30 min) on the efficiency of the adsorption process. The maximum % removal of Cr (VI) was 65.23% at the optimized set of process parameters i.e. solution pH of 3, adsorbent dosage of 1 g/100 mL, contact time of 15 min. Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms were applied to investigate adsorption data, The observed experimental data fitted well to Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0. 9804 and qmax = 9.19 mg/g). The reusability study showed that BGH material is recyclable up to only one cycle with 45.19% Cr (VI) removal efficiency. The obtained experimental results revealed that BGH as an efficient adsorbent may be used for the Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions.


Keywords: Black gram husk (BGH); Cr (VI); Adsorption; Reusability; Isotherms





Research of the Drinking Water Quality in Wells and Fountains of Villages in Gjakova Municipality in Kosovo

Sadija Kadriu, Milaim Sadiku, Mensur Kelmendi, Bleona Tahiraj, Mehush Aliu, Arbër Hyseni, Agron Shala

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1151-1156 | PDF | HTML  

Abstract: It is known that the issue of obtaining sufficient drinking water, this vital element without which there can be no life on earth, as in the past also today is and remains a serious concern for humanity in general. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to study the drinking water quality in villages Hereç, Gërçinë and Damjan in Gjakova Municipality. Water was tested for organoleptic, physico-chemical, and microbiological parameters, and sensory methods and analytical techniques, classical and instrumental ones were aplied. The results of the analysis are compared with the standard values ​​of the EU Directive 98/83 on the quality of water for human consumption. The obtained results prove that the drinking water is contaminated with Mn, with 0.059mg / l in the villages Herec, in Gercine 0.052mg / l and in Damjan with a concentration of 0.07mg / l. Meanwhile, we have encountered microbial contamination in two sampling sites in Gercine and in one sampling site in Damjan. Therefore, the evidence for the presence of Mn and microbial contamination, justify the aim of this work.


Keywords: Drinking waters, Gjakova villages, Analysis, Contamination, Manganese, Microbial contamination






Effect of High-Power Laser on Shoulder Mobility in Sub Acromial Impingement Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial

Walid ahmed Kamal, Mahmood Saber, Khalid Aiad, Mohamed Serag Eldein Mahgoub Mostafa, Heba A. Bahey El- Deen

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1157-1162 | PDF | HTML   

Abstract: The effect of high-power laser on shoulder mobility in subacromial impingement syndrome had been not investigated yet. Objective of study was to investigate the effect of high-power laser therapy on shoulder mobility in subacromial impingement syndrome. A Prospective, Randomized, pre - post- Test, controlled trial was conducted. Setting: Outpatient clinic of Cleopatra Hospital – Egypt. The Study was conducted between June 2017 and Feb 2018. Participants: Forty Patients who were diagnosed with 1 - 2 stage impingement syndrome pain was randomly divided into two equal groups. Interventions.  Group (A) received a program of Neodymium- yttrium aluminum Garnet Laser 1064 nm wave Length Hiro 3 high intensity pulsed Laser was used in the study, Power of 8 W, dose of 12 J/cm2 and Total maximum energy of 10000 J were Applied for 15 min and duration for single impulse 150 `us, fluency 760 mj, two sessions per week over six weeks' period in addition to exercise   Group (B) Received Exercise in the form of Pendulum Ex. For 5 minutes, strengthen Ex for Anterior fiber of deltoid, stretching ex for sub scapularis muscle and anterior and posterior capsule. Main outcome measure: Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), active shoulder flexion and abduction, Ultrasonography of supraspinatus tendon thicknessComparing both groups post-program revealed a statistically significant reduction in Ultrasonography Dimension of supraspinatus and VAS and significant increase in ROM of shoulder flexion and abduction in favor to group A in compared to group B (p > 0.05).  It’s concluded that high level laser Therapy was yielding more improvement for shoulder mobility in impingement syndrome.


Keywords: Impingement syndrome, High level Laser Therapy, Shoulder mobility





Estimating Water Footprint of Palm Oil Production: Case Study in Malaysia

Noor Salehan Mohammad Sabli, Zainura Zainon Noor, Kasturi Devi Kanniah, Siti Nurhayati Kamaruddin

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1163-1167 | PDF | HTML   

Abstract: Malaysia is currently facing some issues in fulfilling the high demand in palm oil production, which inevitably led to a rapid expansion of palm oil industry in Malaysia. Therefore, water-related problems have become a major concern in environmental and social issues associated to palm oil industries. Inevitably, it is very important that the water consumption in this sector be analysed. Water footprint is one of the methods that can be used as a tool for sustaining appropriate freshwater resources. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate water footprint at palm oil mill from fresh fruit bunches to the production of crude palm oil. Water footprint revealed that the main potential impacts within the system boundary are dominated by water usage at the process through producing crude palm oil and wastewater effluent. At this stage, the total water input mainly comes from the nearest water resources such as rivers and lakes. In one operating day, the mill can produce wastewater of 3.81 m3/tonne of CPO. This amount is equivalent to 0.74 m3/tonne of average production rate of POME for each t of FFB process. At the end of this paper, strategies to optimise the use of water in palm oil mills are presented. 


Keywords: Agricultural Industry, Water degradation, Water footprint, ISO 14046, Sustainable Palm Oil Plantation





Bacteriological Study of Municipal Water Discharged in Al-Kufa River, Najaf, Iraq

Ahmed O.M.AL-Dahmoshi and Hazim Aziz Naji Alhadrawi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1168-1167 | PDF | HTML   

Abstract: Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the bacteriological aspects for monitoring of water quality of Al-Kufa River, Al-Najaf, Iraq. Method: Water samples were collected from three sites in frequency of four time a month (For each site the samples were collected from about 100 meter before and after the site of municipal water discharge in the month of November, 2018 and April, 2019. The bacteriological assessment of samples involves, total bacterial count. Results and discussion: Highest number of bacteria was recorded in Site no 3, during month of April while the lowest number was recorded in Site no 1, during month of November. Study also included isolation and identification of bacteria by using the selective culture media. An isolated bacteria includes E.coli, K.pneumoniae, P.aeruginosa, V. cholera, S.typhi, S.aureus, E faecalis and investigation of antibiotics on bacterial isolates was investigated. Investigation shows resistance for E. coli and K. pneumonia with antibiotic ceftazidime while P. aeruginosa showed high resistance for Cefotaxime and Gentamycin. V. cholera and S.typhi shows significantly high resistance for Beta-lactam antibiotic i.e. Amoxicillin/Clavulanic acid and Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime, while S. aureus and E. faecalis shows high resistance for Clarethromycin and for tetracycline respectively. According to the results of present study we conclude that important  difference observed among the sites in terms of physical ,chemical and bacteriological determinants according to site and the period of sample collection ,The study isolates showed  different high antibiotic resistance patterns and the findings reflect the importance of  water as a reservoir for the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the natural aquatic the identification of this kind of contamination is necessary for appropriate management practices to improve sustainable water resources.


Keywords: Municipal Water Discharged, Al-Kufa River, Resistance





Development of an Analytical Method for Determination of Carboplatin and Oxaliplatin in Resource Water, Prediction and Environmental Risk Assessment

M. Alimohammadi, M. Asadi-Ghalhari, Y. Ghafuri

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1168-1175 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Carboplatin and Oxaliplatin as cytotoxic drugs have developed in recent years as a group of antineoplastic agents, have the ability to kill or stop the growth of certain living cells and are used in chemotherapy of cancer. That their function is through the disruption of cell division. This study aimed to determine carboplatin and Oxaliplatin in wastewater samples by the characterization of the LC-MS/MS method. The method was carried out on ODS C18 (250 mm, 3.5 µm) in which the mobile phase was A = Water +0.1% formic acid, B= methanol +0.1% formic acid, (A / B) = 20:80(V/V), flow rate: 0.3 mL/min, and injection volumes: 5 µL. The method was validated for LOD, LOQ, accuracy and precision. Results of environmental risk assessment showed that RQ (risk quotient) for Carboplatin and Oxaliplatin were 0.51 and 0.038 respectively that indicates all of platinum compounds had low environmental exposure risk.  In this regard, studies should be carried out to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity effects of the metabolites of cytotoxic platinum compounds and strategies to removal of these compounds.


Keywords: Carboplatin, Oxaliplatin, Risk, Assessment





Diversity of Gastropod and Bivalve Molluscs in Kaisu Mangrove Forest of Sarmi Regency, Papua Province, Indonesia

Jacob Manusawai, Anton S. Sinery, Rina N. Jowey

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1176-1181 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Molluscs are an important part of the mangrove ecosystem. Scientific information related to gastropods and Bivalvia in Kaisu mangrove is not known. Thus, this study aims at identifying the diversity of molluscs (gastropod and Bivalvia) in Kaisu mangrove forest. This study has used descriptive method with observation techniques. The observation station was determined using purposive sampling considering the zonation of mangrove vegetation. The taken data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively based on each parameter. The results of the study show that, in Kaisu mangrove forest of ​​ Bongga District, Sarmi Regency, 10 species of molluscs were identified with 1804 individuals consisting of 8 species of gastropoda (Telescopium telescopium, Steno melani, Nerita articulate, Ellobiumaurisjudae, Cheritidea obtuse, Indothais gradate, Spherassimineamimata, Littorariamelanostoma) and 2 species of Bivalvia (Geloinaexpansa, Anumalocardisquamasa). The dominance index of the mollusca species of this mangrove forest was 0.74, indicating the dominance of Telescopium telescopium with species diversity index of 0.27 (low category) and a species evenness index of 0.32 (low category).


Keywords: Molluscs; Bivalvia; Mangrove forest; Ecosystem





Entrepreneurship in the Colombia-Ecuador Border Integration Zone in the Post-Conflict Setting

Martha Lida Solarte Solarte, Claudia Magali Solarte Solarte

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1182-1190 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: This article is about the urgency of creating and proposing development alternatives to reintegrate former members who belonged to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) into civilian life. On the occasion of the signing of the peace treaty between this group and the Colombian government in 2016; also for the victims and territories with the highest incidence of the conflict in the Colombia-Ecuador border. The general objective was to analyze the forms of productive entrepreneurship as facilitators in the process of reintegration into the post-agreement period in Colombia taking into account the successful experiences in the creation of Ecuadorian companies. The methodology used a quantitative approach, analytical empirical method and descriptive research. The tools to collect information were a survey and an interview; with a sample of 128 reinserted FARC members and 47 Ecuadorian social and solidarity-based economy organizations. The results come from reinserted FARC members located in the Municipality of Tallambí (Colombia) and the social and solidarity-based economy organizations in the Canton of Carchi (Ecuador). The information obtained about directing and entrepreneurship policies came from the two governments (Ecuador and Colombia), and models of creating companies according to the characteristics found. It can be concluded that the majority of reinserted people are youngsters between the ages of 26 and 30, that is, in a productive age, willing to train and assume entrepreneurship proposals to continue their reintegration process and improve their quality of life. This can be possible with the help of the two governments, the social institutions and the international community.

Keywords: Peace treaty, Social and solidarity based economy, Entrepreneurship, Colombia-Ecuador border, Post-conflict, Reinserted people




Modeling of Adsorption Isotherms of Caffeine onto Groundnut Shell as a Low Cost Adsorbent

 Abdoulaye Demba N’diaye and Mohamed Sid’Ahmed Kankou

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1191-1195 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Caffeine is a chemical compound that has been detected in the environment and belongs to some of the most popular emerging pollutants that may cause serious environmental and human health problems. In this study, the adsorption of caffeine on groundnut shell as low cost adsorbent was investigated using the batch equilibrium method. Three adsorption isotherms namely the Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson isotherms in their non-linear forms were applied to the adsorption equilibrium data. Both the Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models were found to fit the adsorption isotherm data well. The retention of caffeine on the groundnut shell showed a relatively significant adsorption with a maximal quantity of 4.21 mg g-1. The present study showed that the powdered groundnut shell is a promising and alternative adsorbent for the removal of caffeine from aqueous solutions.


Keywords: Caffeine, Groundnut shell, Adsorbent, Isotherms





Limitation Legal Certainty of Long-Term Flat unit Ownership Related to Flat Building Ownership

Sukiman Sugita, Abdul Gani Abdullah, Gunawan Djajaputra

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1196-1199 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Humans in carrying out their lives must meet certain requirements of life which consists of several levels based on their interests, including the most basic primary needs met first by Humans, Secondary Needs that arise and support primary needs and tertiary needs that can be fullfiled after primary and secondary needs. Basic needs in this case will describing human needs for shelter or a place to stay as their needs to living. The need for flats is inevitable to meet the need for shelter for the people of Indonesia, especially related to the dense population in urban areas. However, the existing regulations cannot provide legal certainty due to material and formal requirements that need to be provided in providing legal certainty have not been regulated so that it can be implemented optimally. This research was conducted using a legal approach that prioritizes several legal theories to analyze and test the laws and regulations related to the limitations of ownership of flats that are timed to be associated with building ownership so that ownership is expected to provide recommendations and suggestions for developing policies that provide significant benefits in reforming the legal provisions and the usefulness, justice and legal certainty in Indonesia.


Keywords: Flat building, Flat unit, Legal certainty, Ownership





The Certificate of Building Use of Rights (Shgb) that has been out Duration of Ownership, with Execution of Sita Object Guarantee to Land

 Heru Soetanto Putra, Abdul Gani Abdullah, Gunawan Djajaputra

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1200-1208 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: The length of the civil litigation process regarding land from the District Court, the High Court to the final level and legal protection of the assets seized as well as proof of ownership of land or building rights are certificates. Based on these problems, it can be analyzed the validity of the execution of the object of confiscation of land against the Land Use Certificate (SHGB) that has expired and can be analyzed what steps must be taken in protecting the assets confiscated in a civil case through the Civil Procedure Code, the Agrarian Regulation Indonesia, Indonesian Auction Regulations. Based on this analysis, the Confiscation, Execution and Building Rights Auction activities that have expired are the conclusions of this study.


Keywords: Confiscated object, Certificate of building, Confiscation, Civil Engineering, Auction





Investigating Factors Affecting Construction Workers Performance

Wibawa Prasetya, Christine Natalia, Stella

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1209-1219 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: Employee performance is fundamental to successful execution of construction project where it depends by internal and external factors. To increase employee performance, the organization should analyze the external factors that may reflect on employee performances. This research examines the relationship of work-life balance, mental workload and job satisfaction with the performance of construction employee.  Data collection using questionnaires that have been tested for validity and relibiality and sampling technique using purposive sampling. The data processing was done by using NASA-TLX method to find out the mental workload and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling) method. The results showed that the mental work load negatively affect job satisfaction and employee performance, work-life balance positivetly affect job satisfaction and employee performance, and job satisfaction positively affect employee performance. The findings of the paper can be a guidance for construction companies to formulate strategy for increasing employee performances by adding the number of employees for the workload to be decreased, compressing work week for a balanced work-life and to promote the employees more frequently to increase job satisfaction.


Keywords : Work-Life Balance, Mental Workload, Job Satisfaction, Employee Performance, SEM





Diversity of Molluscs (Gastropod And Bivalve) In Mangrove Ecosystem of Oransbari District, South Manokwari Regency, West  Papua Province, Indonesia

Markus Waran, Marlon I. Aipassa, Jacob Manusawai, Anton S. Sinery

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1220-1219 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: In the Oransbari mangrove ecosystem, 13 species of molluscs were identified with 1256 individuals consisting of 9 species of gastropod and 2 species of bivalve. Dominance index of the identified molluscswas 0.11, with species diversity index of 1.89 (medium category) and species evenness index of 0.76 (high category).


Keywords: Diversity, Molluscs, Gastropod, Bivalve, Mangrove Ecosystem, South Manokwari





RTD Modeling of a Non-Ideal Coiled-Tube Reactor Through Experimental Investigation for Pulse Input Using Methylene Blue Dye

Avdesh Singh Pundir, Kailash Singh, Varshika Singhal, Mayank Pandey, Garvit Gupta, Moh. Rohaan, Sunil Rajoriya and Girish Tyagi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1220-1231 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: This paper focuses on the grasp of a deep understanding of flow behavior in a coiled tube reactor through Residence Time Distribution (RTD) studies. The reactors, in general, are classified ideally: mixed and plug-flow patterns. Unfortunately, in the real world, it has been observed that they show very different behavior from that expected. Thus, the characterization of the nonideal coiled tube reactor is needed to carry out. The calculations were carried out in the Matlab for distribution of residence time of the coiled tube reactor that is used in the Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratory at MIET College. Pulse input tests were used significantly to analyzed the flow behavior using methylene blue (MB) tracer. A significant disparity in RTD curves in the presence of the secondary flow was examined and data were recorded. Finally, a suitable mathematical model was selected from the Tank in Series (TIS) and Axial Dispersion Models (ADMs) based on residual error and was used to validate these outcomes. The deconvoluted of the signal was used to get Cin for the verification of the pulse input behavior. The results were compared with the experimental data that concluded the modeling of the reactor is in good agreement.


Keywords: Pulse input, Methylene blue, RTD, Coiled tube reactor, Non-ideal





Enhanced Degradation of Reactive Black 5 from Aqueous Solution over TiO2 Nanoparticles under UV Light Irradiation: Optimization, Experimental & Theoretical Approaches

 Sabah Shiri, Mohsen Mehdipour Rabori, Zeinab Gholami, Zeinab Rahmati, Moayed Adiban, Mansour Sarafraz

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1232-1241 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: In this study, the elimination of dye from contaminated water was considered by the photocatalytic process with TiO2. The effects of operational parameters like TiO2 dosage, initial dye concentration, pH, contact time and temperature on the rate of dye decomposition are studied. TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by XRD, FESEM, and FTIR. The Response Surface Methodology was carried out to investigate the composition effect of input independent factors and removal efficiency (one dependent output response). The F-value (315.9), P-value (2.2 × 10−16), multiple R2 (0.9858), adjusted R2 (0.9827), and lack of fit (0.494) show that the reduced second-order model is greatly significant for dye removal by TiO2 nanoparticles. The efficacy of the process at the optimum operating conditions, pH=11, TiO2 dose (0.7 g/l), reaction time (67.5 minutes), Temperature (40 ℃), and initial dye concentration (55 mg/l) was 86.6%. By using regression coefficients derived from the model and the Solver “Add-ins”, higher removal efficiency was accounted to be 90%. The results showed that the TiO2 nanoparticles under UV light irradiation are very proper for reducing the concentration of pollutants in textile wastewater effluent.


Keywords: TiO2, Photocatalytic degradation, Reactive black 5, Optimization, UV light




The Law Applicable to Petrolume Contract

 Maria Joao Mimoso

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1242-1246 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: As the oil industry is the largest industry in the world, and with the oil contract as the object of these activities, it is imperative to discern some of the issues surrounding it. Producing countries intend to maximize profits from the exploitation of their natural wealth, while consuming countries want to guarantee supply at the lowest possible price. It is important to understand the focus of conflicts in this sector. These are linked, on the one hand, to the need for oil, the decrease in new reserves and the increase in its exploitation. On the other hand, we have the political instability of the producing countries, the disrespect for the environment and social rights of the population on the producing States. This contract has the State and the investor as protagonists. They are often concluded under the aegis of bilateral or multilateral investment agreements between the producer country and the investor's country of origin. Since they are strategic natural resources, the producing State seeks to safeguard the interests of its population. Thus, it is common to include special clauses, maxime stabilization clauses and arbitration clauses. In its regulation, whether in the negotiation or conclusion stages of the contract or even in the dispute resolution phase, an appeal to International Commercial Law is required, covering both UNIDROIT principles and Lex mercatoria, configured here in Lex Petrolia.


Keywords: Agreement, Clauses, Conflicts, Lex Petrolia, Regulation





A Comparative Analysis of the Entrance of the Safavid Mosques in Tabriz

Nazila Edrisi Khosroshahi and Jafar Giyasi

Volume 8  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 1247-1257 | PDF | HTML   


Abstract: In fact, the entrances are part of the mosques that cut people off from the outside space and join them to the spiritual atmosphere. Besides, throughout the indirect entrance, an individual can prepare its thoughts and soul to connect to special spiritual environment. This essential traits of entrance reveals its conceptual connection. The present study develops a descriptive-analytical and comparative interpretation and tries to provide an answer to the question of similarities and differences of facade of Saheb Ol-Amr, Zahiriyeh, Maghsoudiyeh Square and Haj Safar Ali mosques in the Safavid period in Tabriz. To provide an optimal structure for facade design, the three factors of entrance shape, the elements of entrance and the components of the entrance were employed in this comparison. The results show the similarities and reveal major differences among these mosques. Additionally, pairwise analysis performed with Expert choice software draws the importance of each factors considered in facade design. The shape of entrance has the ratio of 36%, the following proportions are occupied by components of entrance (35%) and elements of the facades with the coefficient of 31%. Each parameter provides various suggestions. The shape and elements of entrance, draw Saheb Al Amr Mosque in the first place. On the other hand, Haj Safar Ali assesses the first location from the components’ suggestions. While, Saheb Al Amr Mosque has been achieved the third place from this point of view. Both numerical and statistical analysis recommends that Saheb-Ol Amr mosque is the most well-known mosque among the other mosques in the study.


Keywords: Mosques, Islamic Architectures, Safavid Period, Entrance, Façade




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