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Volume 7, Issue 1, (2019)

Table of Contents





A Treatment Wetland Park Assessment Model for Evaluating Urban Ecosystem Stability using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)

Arezou Shafaghat, Ooi Jin Ying, Ali Keyvanfar, Amir Jamshidnezhad, M. Salim Ferwati, Hamidah Ahmad, Sapura Mohamad, Majid Khorami

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 81-91 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The increased impervious and built-up urban areas threat ecosystem stability through major environmental problems, such as surface runoff, flooding, and wildlife habitat resource depletion. Hence, urban ecologists and planners are attempting to enhance the capacities of wetlands parks in urban ecosystem stabilization. They need an assessment tool to evaluate and quantify the performance of wetland parks on these issues, hereof this study has developed the Urban Wetland Park (UWP) index assessment model. The research conducted three phases; the requirement study to identify the features of wetland park design, formulating index model using Analytical Hierarchy Process method, and model validation using expert input. The UWP model identified eighteen features clustered into three criteria and fifteen sub-criteria and then determined the weights of features. For model validation, the UWP model was applied in Putrajaya wetland park. The UWP resulted with grade B (Good) for Putrajaya wetland park. It means the Putrajaya wetland park performs well in ecosystem stabilization, although the experts recommended few minor improvements regarding site selection (WC1.1.= 0.588), multi-cell and multi-stage design (WC1.5.= 0.604), depth proportion (WC1.6.= 0.652), and biodiversity (WC2.1.= 0.691). Study proposed the UWP as a universal decision support tool to help urban authorities, urban planners and ecologists to assess the ecosystem stabilization of wetland parks.


Keywords: Urban Ecology, Treatment Wetland, Wetland Park, Decision Support Tool, Analytical Hierarchy Process





An Urban River Park Restoration Assessment Model using Analytical Network Process (ANP)

Arezou Shafaghat, Kiu Sue Jing, Ali Keyvanfar, Amir Jamshidnezhad, Hasanuddin Lamit, Majid Khorami

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 92-102 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The urban planners and developers are attempting to restore the river parks through sustainable and ecological approaches which return the encroached habitats and degraded ecosystems to a stable and healthy condition. However, they need an assessment model to measure and quantify the urban river park’s ecological restoration performances and capabilities. Accordingly, this research has developed the Urban River Park Restoration (URPR) Assessment Model. The UPRP assessment model has been developed using the Analytical Network Process (ANP) method. The URPR model is a multi‐layered decision-making model involving four criteria and thirty sub-criteria. Among the criteria, the river slope stabilization techniques have gained the highest limited weight (WC2=0.844), followed by the stream buffer (WC1=0.0841). Within all sub-criteria, the vegetated geogrid has gained the highest limited weight (WC2.6=0.0442), followed by the vegetated gabion (WC2.2=0.037). The UPRP model aids urban professional to assess and improve the urban river park’s ecosystem. This model can be applied to any river parks around the world, and this research implemented it to Bishan River Park in Malaysia. According to URPR model assessment results, the Bishan River Park earned Grade B (Good), means, some minor restoration improvements are needed.  


Keywords: River Park, Restoration, Ecological Assessment, Decision Making, Assessment Model, Analytical Network Process (ANP)





Potassium Halides - Impregnated Eggshell as a Heterogeneous Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production

Mansoor Anbia,  Sholeh Masoomi, Sotoudeh Sedaghat, Mohammad Sepehrian

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 103-108 | PDF | HTML



Abstract: In this study, Potassium halides-doped Calcium Oxide (CaO) was synthesized as heterogeneous nanocatalysts for transesterification of waste cooking oil. The chicken eggshell wastes were used as raw materials to synthesize calcium oxide. The calcium carbonate (CaCO3), principal constituent in the eggshell, was changed to calcium oxide by calcining at 873 K for 4 h. After that, the calcium oxide was impregnated with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium fluoride (KF) via wet impregnation method. The textural properties of the solid oxide catalyst were characterized by base strength, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The basic strengths of the catalysts were determined applying Hammett indicator. The yield of nanocatalysts evaluated by using the prepared catalysts in waste cooking oil transesterification with methanol for at 338 K 2 h. the catalytic activity depends on several factors such as, base strength, Impregnation and calcination processes and impregnated Compound. The formed KCaF3 was the major active element for the catalytic activity in KF/CaO nanocatalyst, however, this activity was not observed in KI/CaO nanocatalyst. For the reason of presenting of this component, the Ca2+ in KF/CaO acts as a stronger Lewis acid and exhibits high catalytic activity. Biodiesel yield for KF/CaO catalyst and KI/CaO was 91.18 % and 87.69%, respectively.


Keywords: Heterogeneous nanocatalyst, Eggshell wastes, Basic nanocatalyst, Biodiesel Production




Utilization Potential of Waste from Sugarcane Factory of Bangladesh as Partial Replacement of Cement in Concrete

Shaikh Mohammad Shamim Reza, Sherajul islam

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 109-112 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Sugarcane bagasse easily found in sugar factories of Bangladesh. Some of them are used as fuel in sugar mills and rest of them are dumped into environment without any commercial return. The disposal of this material is causing environmental problems around the sugar factories. On the other hand, urbanization and industrialization is rapidly increasing in Bangladesh. So, the construction industry is rapidly expanding. Currently large amount of cement is needed for this construction industry. It will be increasing day by day. The study examined the potentiality of using classified Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to replace some part of OPC cement in concrete. In this study, bagasse sample was collected from Natore sugar mill. After collecting the sugarcane bagasse, it was dried in sun for a week and then it burned in aggregate burning oven at 800°C to 1000°C temperature for 20 minutes. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was replaced by SCBA at different percentage ratios at 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10 and 12.5%. Normal consistency and setting time were investigated for these ratios. The compressive strengths of different concrete with SCBA addition were also investigated. Strength was tested for 7, 28 and 56 days. The test results indicated that up to 5% replacement of cement by bagasse ash results in better or similar concrete properties. It also showed the economic advantages by using SCBA as a partial cement replacement material.


Keywords: Industrial Waste, Sugarcane Bagasse, Ash, Pozzolanic material, Cement replacement, Sustainable Concrete, Setting time, Compressive strength





A Review on Different Aerobic and Anaerobic Treatment Methods in Dairy Industry Wastewater

Amin Goli1, Ahmad Shamiri, Susan Khosroyar, Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Reza Sanaye, Kourosh Azizi

 Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 113-141 | PDF | HTML | XML


Abstract: Dairy industries have grown tremendously in many regions around the world due to the growth of demand for milk-related products. Dairy industries release wastewater containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, in addition to organic and inorganic substances. Such wastewater, if improperly treated, severely pollutes water resources. For many years, anaerobic–aerobic processes have been used to remarkable effect in the treatment of dairy industry wastewater. Previously, a large portion of wastewater treatment was carried out in conventional anaerobic–aerobic treatment units. Nowadays, high-rate anaerobic–aerobic bioreactors are progressively employed for treating wastewater with high COD content. This paper reviews dairy wastewater sources, their production, and characteristics. Furthermore, different types of high-rate anaerobic–aerobic wastewater treatment methods currently available, including aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors over and above hybrid anaerobic–aerobic bioreactors, are discussed. The strong points and the weaknesses of different individual and combined anaerobic and aerobic bioreactors are highlighted; they are then compared to point out future areas of investigation for full usage and application of these methods for wastewater treatment. The comparison demonstrates that using an integrated bioreactor is advantageous in treating highly polluted industrial wastewater. The combination of aerobic and anaerobic degradation pathways in an individual bioreactor can enhance overall degradation efficiency. Furthermore, this combination appears as an attractive alternative from the technical, economic, and environmental perspectives, especially wherever space is a limiting factor.


Keywords: Dairy product, Industrial dairy wastewater, Anaerobic–aerobic treatment, Anaerobic–aerobic bioreactors, Wastewater treatment




Green Synthesis and Characterization of Spherical Structure Silver Nanoparticles Using Wheatgrass Extract

Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani, Nasrin Beheshtkhoo, Gholamreza Fotoohiardakani, Hossein Hosseini-Nave, Saeed Taghizadeh, Ali Mohammad Amani

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 142-149 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: In this research, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using green approaches. Biosynthesis using plant extract was applied as a green method to the preparation of silver nanoparticles. In this work, the effect of Wheatgrass extract was investigated as reducing an agent. As-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using several physical methods such as, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering method (DLS). The result of TEM images showed that silver nanoparticles were formed as spherical particles with high monodispersity and size 21-32 nm. Additionally, the size distribution of these nanoparticles was calculated with DLS histogram which the result was in agreement with the result of TEM image with average size 28 nm. Since, the Wheatgrass extract play an important role as the capping agent, the present of this extract on the surface of silver nanoparticles was to study using FTIR analysis and the result approved the present of many functional groups on the surface of nanoparticles. Briefly, this strategy provides a simple, cost effect and eco-friendly way to prepare nanoparticles without using hazardous chemical agents. 


Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Green synthesis, Biosynthesis, Wheatgrass extract




Preparation and Characterization of Husk Based Carbons: Effect of the Temperature

Yacouba Sanou, Mande Seyf-Laye Alfa-Sika, Ephraim Vunain, Samuel Pare

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 150-157 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: This study on the production of activated carbons (AC) prepared through chemical activation using sodium hydroxide solution consisted to evaluate the effect of temperature using two values (500°C and 650°C). The characterization of the AC were carried out using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) experiments, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier Transform- Infrared (FT-IR). A comparison of pore characteristics with UIPAC’s norms showed that all the produced carbons were mesoporous and both carbons had low surface areas of 12.13 and 29.45 m2/g for AC1 and AC2, respectively; AC1 and AC2 being AC prepared at 500°C and 650°C, respectively. Low surface areas were due to the activation solution and the temperature of pyrolysis of biomass which affect strongly the characteristics of carbon. At Zero Point Charge, pH of both carbons is too closed and basic indicating their ability to fix cationic species on their surface.


Keywords: Activated carbon, Chemical activation, Rice husk, Temperature, Surface area.






Removal of CO2 from Gas Mixture by Aqueous Blends of Monoethanolamine + Piperazine and Thermodynamic Analysis Using the Improved Kent Eisenberg Model

Hamid Niknam, Alireza Jahangiri, Nasibeh Alishvandi

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 158-165 | PDF | HTML


Abstract:  In this study, a system was designed to determine CO2 solubility in alkanolamine solvents. In what follows, the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of CO2 solubility in the 12 wt% MEA aqueous solution and PZ + MEA mixture with various concentrations (1+12wt%, 2+12wt%, and 3+12wt%), at different partial pressure of CO2 (8.44, 25.33, and 42.22 kPa) and various temperatures (303, 313 and 323 K) at a total pressure of 0.83 atm were tested. Also, the variation of CO2 partial pressure, system temperature, and the effect of adding PZ to MEA solvent were studied. The experimental results showed that by increasing the concentration of PZ and CO2 partial pressure, CO2 loading increases and the temperature rise leads to a decrease in CO2 loading. The values ​​obtained for CO2 loading in these experiments were in the range of 0.005-0.216 (molCO2/molAmine), and the maximum obtained value was for 3wt% of PZ + 12wt% of MEA at 303 K. Finally, the improved Kent-Eisenberg model parameters were fitted by using the MATLAB software and the experimental conditions of this study. Average absolute deviations percentage between the calculated and experimental loading was 24.4%, which indicates that the improved Kent-Eisenberg model is in good agreement with experimental data.


Keywords: CO2 solubility, MEA aqueous solution, Piperazine additive, improved Kent-Eisenberg thermodynamic model



Comparison of Regression Model and Modified Monod Kinetic Model to Predict the Removal of Ethanol in Trickling Biofilter

Amin Goli, Susan Khosroyar, Behroz Vaziri, Fatemeh Sadat Dehghani, Reza Sanaye, Mohammad Mohammadi

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 166-170 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Ethanol is a toxic compound and a member of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Ethanol is emitted to the atmosphere by several industries worldwide. Biotrickling filter technology is a well-known technology for removal of VOCs from air. The aim of this study is to compare two regression and modified monod models to predict the removal of ethanol using a biotrickling filter reactor (BTFR). The data of the previous study on ethanol vapor removal by bio-trickling filter were used for determination of rmax and Km. Also by these data, a simple regression model was developed. Eventually, ethanol removal efficiency was predicted by both regression and kinetic models. All results were compared with actual data. Our results show that regression model could only predict the average of ethanol removal efficiency. However, kinetic model could additionally predict all changes in ethanol removal efficiency: it has had some good alignment with actual data.


Keyword: Ethanol, Kinetic coefficient, Modeling, Biotrickling filter, Biodegradation



Infertility Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs among Iranian College Students

Volume 7  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 171-178 | PDF | HTML

Sanaz Alaee, Elham Yousefian, Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Gholam Reza Ziaee, Hamideh Homayoon


Abstract: The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of college students about infertility was assessed. A questionnaire was designed. The target population was students attending a college located in Fooladshahr, Isfahan, Iran. The main research outcome measures for this study were to determine the infertility knowledge, attitudes and beliefs among these students. Our results demonstrated that there are differences in knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of students based on gender. A greater proportion of female students answered more questions correctly in comparison to their male counterparts. Also the majority of students knew about some of the biological and lifestyle factors related to infertility, including that infertility is a problem for both men and women, and the effects of genetics, abnormal sperm production and/or function, blocked fallopian tube and environmental factors on fertility. However, there were notable gaps in fertility knowledge in some areas, such as the most fertile time in a woman’s menstrual cycle, the age range with a marked decrease in a woman’s ability to become pregnant, negative effects of advanced age on men’s fertility, and negative effects of genital tract infection, being underweight or overweight, smoking, alcohol, psychological stress and sexually transmitted infection. In Conclusion the awareness of female students in some cases is significantly more than that of males. It also appears that there is an overall perception that women are more likely to become infertile due to any number of causes that are, in fact, of equal risk to both men and women.


Keywords: Infertility, Knowledge, Students, Attitude





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