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Volume 5, Issue 4, (2017)

Table of Contents



Disaster Response and Potentials of Social Capital

Asim Bin Waheed, Arshad Ali

Volume 5  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 114-117 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The paper examines the hidden potentials of social capital in disaster response especially with reference to societal construct of Pakistan. Reference had been made in the paper to tribal culture of FATA (Federal Administrative Tribal Agency) in managing local emergencies and recovery seen in Swat owing to spirit latent in their society. Social capital allows people and societies to manage action to achieve desired goals. It has proved to be an important product in shaping regional development models and since managing disasters is a function of development, this form of capital has a definite impact on managing disasters. In Pakistan, the social structure of families is interwoven with trust, traditional values, religious motivation and cultural bindings. This allows them to retain capacity to withstand odds in severe conditions at their own without outside support. They strive to generate their own volunteers in case of any calamity. Recent examples are the resilience of people of Swat in 2009 military operations and by urban residents of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) in 2010 Floods. Finally, the dissertation offers some pliable recommendations and a road map to strengthen social capital in effective disaster response.               


Keywords: Social systems, social capital, human capital, inter-personal trust, resource potential



Reuse of Wastes in Concrete 

Maqbool, S.M., Bilal, A., Arshad, A., Rehan, A.M., Awais, A.

Volume 5  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 118-123 | PDF | HTML

Abstract: The concrete is considered to be the 2nd most abundantly used material in the world after water. Since, its preparation causes rapid environmental degradation. Therefore, efforts are being made for a sustainable development to secure the environment. This study was design to study the usage of locally available waste materials in concrete. The cement was replaced by MWG, sand by waste glass and coarse aggregate by demolished concrete material, at varying proportions. More than 150 cylinders were casted using various ingredients proportionality to study the compressive strength at 7th day, 14th day and 28th day. An additional 60 prisms were also prepared to study the 28 days flexural strength. Using SYSTAT software, the percentage partial replacement of cement, fine and coarse aggregate, for the matrix of green concrete preparation, was calculated to be 9%, 37% and 74%, respectively, with a water-cement ratio of 0.45. The ultimate laboratory analysis of the green concrete, illustrates that its compression and flexural strength is 3-4% more than that of the normal concrete rendering cost saving and reducing environmental impact. The paper besides using various gradation of waste glass as partial replacement of cement and fine aggregate and recycled aggregate as partial replacement of coarse aggregate also used a novel technique of Response Surface Analysis to reach optimum replacement volume fractions. 

Keywords: Wastes, environmental preservation, concrete, strength



Experimental Identifications of Fresh Water Microalgae Species and Investigating the Media and pH Effect on the Productions of Microalgae

Tadele Assefa Aragaw, Abraham M. Asmare

Volume 5  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 124-131 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Identifying predominant species around freshwater system is essential to propose a project for harvesting those species which can be used for colored waste treatment, biofuel production, for cosmotics and carbon sequestration.  The objective of this study was to investigate the co-culture microalgae species and identifying   the predominant fresh water co-cultured microalgae species.The production of microalgae (mixed culture) in photobioreactor configurations wasinvestigated, using different media formulations in batch operation. In the present study the predominant co-cultured freshwater microalgae Scenedesmussp., Chlorellasp., Synedra sp. and Achnanthidium sp. were investigated in batch culture system and Effect of culturing media( BB Medium and BG-11 Medium) for effective algal growth ware determined. The Bold basalt medium has maximum optical density value than the BG-11 medium and the maximum biomass concentration was found 0.608 g/L in the Bolt basalt medium and 0.5624 g/L in BG-11 medium for 15 day cultivation time.The study revealed that amount of time required to adapt the environment differed significantly in both growth medium type. Also pH range has an effect on the mass productions of algae. From this study, the high productions of mixed culture microalgae were investigated at pH 8.


Keyword: Identification, Microalgae, Mixed culture, media, Photobioreactor, Phycology



Extrapolation of Live Load Effects to 75 Years Return Period for Highway Bridges

I. Shahid, A.K. Noman, S. H. Farooq, A. Arshad

Volume 5  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 132-140 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Design of bridges is primarily governed by the live load models representing truck traffic. In Pakistan, bridges are designed as per live load models of Pakistan Code of Practice for Highway Bridges 1967 (called herein as “CPHB”) and American Associations for State Highway and Transportation officials AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications (called herein as “AASHTO”). CPHB is based on 1961 American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO) Bridge Design Specifications.Further, National Highway Authority (NHA) has specified legal limits on the live loads to prevent overstressing of bridges. Live load models are usually developed from existing truck data. Load model for highway bridges are primarily based on truck load, dead load and dynamic load. Live load data required for bridge design includes the Gross vehicle weight (GVW), axle weight, axle spacing and truck configuration.Correct estimation of data plays a vital role in designing of the bridge for intended design period which is 75 years as per AASHTO LRFD code. Estimating the traffic data is nearly impossible for 75 years as data recording for such a long time is not possible.However a reasonable result can be achieved by projectingthe collected data to 75 years. Data which is to be projected is usually collected over a short period ranging from 3 months to one year.Various techniques are used for extrapolation to 75 years but this paper aims at describing and comparing the test results using non-parametric fit method as was used by (Kozikowski and Nowak, 2009), Convolution method (NCHRP 683, 2012)and CDF (Cumulative Distribution Function)projection method adopted by MDOT(Michigan Department of Transportation) for investigation of current design/truck load to calculate maximum 75 years load effect on the bridge (RC-1413, 2002).


Keywords: Highway Bridge, truck load, Live Load, Weigh in Motion, Non-parametric fit.


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