Volume 5, Issue 4,
Disaster Response and Potentials of Social Capital
Waheed, Arshad Ali
Volume 5 | Issue 4 | Pages: 114-117
The paper examines the hidden potentials of social capital in disaster response
especially with reference to societal construct of Pakistan. Reference had been
made in the paper to tribal culture of FATA (Federal Administrative Tribal
Agency) in managing local emergencies and recovery seen in Swat owing to spirit
latent in their society.
Social capital allows
people and societies to manage action to achieve desired goals. It has proved to
be an important product in shaping regional development models and since
managing disasters is a function of development, this form of capital has a
definite impact on managing disasters.
In Pakistan, the social structure of families is interwoven with trust,
traditional values, religious motivation and cultural bindings. This allows them
retain capacity to withstand odds in severe conditions at their own without
outside support. They strive to generate their own volunteers in case of any
calamity. Recent examples are the resilience of people of Swat in 2009 military
operations and by urban residents of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) in 2010 Floods.
Finally, the dissertation offers some pliable recommendations and a road map to
strengthen social capital in effective disaster response.
Social systems, social capital, human
capital, inter-personal trust, resource potential
Reuse of Wastes in Concrete
Bilal, A., Arshad, A., Rehan, A.M., Awais, A.
Volume 5 | Issue 4 | Pages: 118-123
The concrete is
considered to be the 2nd most abundantly used material in the world
after water. Since, its preparation causes rapid environmental degradation.
Therefore, efforts are being made for a sustainable development to secure the
environment. This study was design to study the usage of locally available waste
materials in concrete. The cement was replaced by MWG, sand by waste glass and
coarse aggregate by demolished concrete material, at varying proportions. More
than 150 cylinders were casted using various ingredients proportionality to
study the compressive strength at 7th day, 14th day and 28th
day. An additional 60 prisms were also prepared to study the 28 days flexural
strength. Using SYSTAT software, the percentage partial replacement of cement,
fine and coarse aggregate, for the matrix of green concrete preparation, was
calculated to be 9%, 37% and 74%, respectively, with a water-cement ratio of
0.45. The ultimate laboratory analysis of the green concrete, illustrates that
its compression and flexural strength is 3-4% more than that of the normal
concrete rendering cost saving and reducing environmental impact. The paper
besides using various gradation of waste glass as partial replacement of cement
and fine aggregate and recycled aggregate as partial replacement of coarse
aggregate also used a novel technique of Response Surface Analysis to reach
optimum replacement volume fractions.
preservation, concrete, strength
Experimental Identifications of Fresh Water Microalgae
Species and Investigating the Media and pH Effect on the Productions of
Assefa Aragaw, Abraham M. Asmare
Volume 5 | Issue 4 | Pages: 124-131
Identifying predominant species around freshwater system is essential to propose
a project for harvesting those species which can be used for colored waste
treatment, biofuel production, for cosmotics and carbon sequestration. The
objective of this study was to investigate the co-culture microalgae species and
identifying the predominant fresh water co-cultured microalgae species.The
production of microalgae (mixed culture) in photobioreactor configurations
wasinvestigated, using different media formulations in batch operation.
present study the predominant co-cultured freshwater microalgae Scenedesmussp.,
Chlorellasp., Synedra sp. and Achnanthidium sp. were investigated in batch
culture system and Effect of culturing media( BB Medium and BG-11 Medium) for
effective algal growth ware determined. The Bold basalt medium has maximum
optical density value than the BG-11 medium and
the maximum biomass concentration was found
g/L in the Bolt basalt medium and
g/L in BG-11 medium for 15 day cultivation time.The
study revealed that amount of time required to adapt the environment differed
significantly in both growth medium type.
Also pH range has an effect on the mass productions of algae. From this study,
the high productions of mixed culture microalgae were investigated at pH 8.
Identification, Microalgae, Mixed culture, media, Photobioreactor, Phycology
Extrapolation of Live Load Effects to 75 Years Return
Period for Highway Bridges
A.K. Noman, S. H. Farooq, A. Arshad
Volume 5 | Issue 4 | Pages: 132-140
Design of bridges is primarily governed by the live load models representing
truck traffic. In Pakistan, bridges are designed as per live load models of
Pakistan Code of Practice for Highway Bridges 1967 (called herein as “CPHB”) and
American Associations for State Highway and Transportation officials AASHTO LRFD
Bridge Design Specifications (called herein as “AASHTO”). CPHB is based on 1961
American Association of State Highways and Transport Officials (AASHTO) Bridge
Design Specifications.Further, National Highway Authority (NHA) has specified
legal limits on the live loads to prevent overstressing of bridges. Live load
models are usually developed from existing truck data. Load model for highway
bridges are primarily based on truck load, dead load and dynamic load. Live load
data required for bridge design includes the Gross vehicle weight (GVW), axle
weight, axle spacing and truck configuration.Correct estimation of data plays a
vital role in designing of the bridge for intended design period which is 75
years as per AASHTO LRFD code. Estimating the traffic data is nearly impossible
for 75 years as data recording for such a long time is not possible.However a
reasonable result can be achieved by projectingthe collected data to 75 years.
Data which is to be projected is usually collected over a short period ranging
from 3 months to one year.Various techniques are used for extrapolation to 75
years but this paper aims at describing and comparing the test results using
non-parametric fit method as was used by (Kozikowski and Nowak, 2009),
Convolution method (NCHRP 683, 2012)and CDF (Cumulative Distribution
Function)projection method adopted by MDOT(Michigan Department of
Transportation) for investigation of current design/truck load to calculate
maximum 75 years load effect on the bridge (RC-1413, 2002).
Highway Bridge, truck load, Live Load, Weigh in Motion, Non-parametric fit.