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Volume 4, Issue 4, (2016)

Table of Contents






Evaluation of Toxicity of Nirouchlor Corporation Wastewater on Poecilia reticulata

Amirreza Talaiekhozan, Sanaz Alaee, Elham Borna, Najme Rostami Najafabadi  

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 98-101 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The main aim of this study is to determine of Nirouchlor wastewater’s LD50. Two set of experiments were conducted to determine LD50 of the wastewater for contact times of 48 and 96 hours. First, three aquariums were prepared, each containing 15 pieces of Poecilia reticulata, 10 liters of water having three different concentrations of wastewater. The Poecilia reticulata was preserved in aquariums for 48 hours. Then, the number of dead fishes for each wastewater concentration was counted, and mortality percentage was calculated for each wastewater concentration. Second, the same procedure was used for 96 hours. The results show that LD50 for contact times of 48 and 96 hours are equal of 0.48 and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Comparing these results with LD50 of other chemicals shows that in case of releasing of Nirouchlor wastewater into the environment without enough treatment, it can kill a large number of aquatic creatures. It is elaborated that the Nirouchlor wastewater is very toxic for aquatic creatures. The results of this study can be useful to find out which dangers will threaten the environment in the case of releasing Nirouchlor wastewater without appropriate treatment. 


Keywords: LD50, Poecilia reticulata, Wastewater toxicity




Proximate Analysis of Cane Bagasse and Synthesizing Activated Carbon: Emphasis on Material Balance

Tadele Assefa Aragaw

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 102-110 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: This study aims for proximate analysis of cane bagasse and   preparation of activated carbon using a suitable sugar cane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was examined to produce an activated carbon through the chemical activation process. The bagasse has longer availability and inexpensive material with high carbon and low inorganic content. The activated carbon produced from pyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse was chemically activated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH). A systematic investigation of the effect of activation temperature on the properties of the activated carbon was done. The chemically activated carbon yield was investigated and the maximum yield percentage of the activated carbon prepared in this study was 14.5%.


Keyword: Activated carbon, cane bagasse, material balance, proximate analysis




The Effects of Some Bio-Nematicides on the Productivity of Capsicum annum

Helen O. Imafidor, Godwin P. Angaye, Sidney O. Nzeako

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 111-117 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Biopesticides have found intrinsic application in the control of plant pests and diseases, due to their eco-friendly activities and bioavailability as opposed to synthetic pesticides. Nematode infestation has become a major problem associated with poor yield and low economic value of farm produce. The height and dry shoot weight (DSW), of C. annum (pepper plant), treated with some potential nematicides (Azadirachta indica, Vernonia amygdalina, Manihot esculenta, Carica papaya. and Citrus sinensis), were investigated ex-situ. The investigation was carried out in a two trials, within exposure periods of 30, 60 and 90-days, at different concentrations of 20, 30 and 40g. Results showed that, compared to the control, all treatments similarly demonstrated significant improvement in the monitored parameters of both trials (p < 0.05). Thus the applied treatment significantly (p < 0.05), improved productivity of C. annum induced due to their varying degrees of nematotoxicity. Based on the findings of this research, we therefore conclude that the application of the treatments (i.e. bionematicides), can improve the productivity of Capsicum plant.


Keywords: Biopesticide, bioavailability, nematotoxicity, treatment, bionematicide




The Effect of Preservation in Alcohol on The Morphological Characters of The Zagros Tooth-Carp, Aphanius vladykovi Coad, 1988

Seyede Amene Hossaini, Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah, Masoud Sattari

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 118-120 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The present research was performed to investigate the effects of fixed and preserved in 96% alcohol on the morphological characteristics of the Zagros pubfish, Aphanius vladykovi Coad, 1988. For this purpose, 30 specimens of A. vladykovi were collected from rivers  in Chaharmahal-o-Bakhtiyari Province, Iran. After an initial evaluation on morphological characters (TL, SL and HL), Samples were fixed and preserved in 96% alcohol for 3 months. After this period, samples were removed from the alcohol and then measurement and evaluation of color features were performed once again. The results indicated that shrinkage was common in all the specimens and changes in body color were clearly distinguishable compared with  fresh fish such a way that the body and fin colors were opaque, while color pattern was detectable, although the intensity was reduced.


Keywords: Alcohol, Aphanius vladykovi, Morphological characters, Fixation




A Comprehensive Analysis of Knowledge Management Cycles

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 121-129 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: At present knowledge and its proper management became an essential issue for every organization. In the modern globalized world, organizations cannot survive in a sustainable way without efficient knowledge management. Knowledge management cycle (KMC) is a process of transforming information into knowledge within an organization, which explains how knowledge is captured, processed, and distributed in an organization. For the better performance organizations require a practical and coherent strategy and comprehensive KMC. The aim of this study is to examine the KMCs and how they are playing vital roles for the development of organizations.


Keywords: Knowledge, Knowledge management, Meyer and Zack, Bukowitz and Williams, McElroy, Wiig KM cycles.




Evaluation of Total Hydrocarbon Content and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in an Oil Spill Contaminated Soil in Rumuolukwu Community in Niger Delta

Ayobami Omozemoje Aigberua, Allen Tobin Ekubo, Azibaola Kesiye Inengite and Sylvester Chibueze Izah

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 130-142 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: This study assessed total hydrocarbon content (THC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in an oil spill contaminated soil in Rumuolukwu community in Niger Delta. The study was carried out between August 2013 to January 2014. THC and PAH were analyzed using standard procedure. PAH in the contaminated soil for both season were predicted using Diagnostic Ratios [Ant/(Ant+Phe), Flt/(Flt+Pyr), BaA/(BaA+Chr), Flt/Pyr and BaP/(BaP+Chr)]. PAH and THC concentration were higher in August 2013 (wet season) compared to January 2014 (dry season), indicating natural attenuation as the study period increases. Also, higher concentration of PAH and THC were observed at less depth (0-15cm) compared to higher depth (15cm – 60cm). Based on diagnostic ratio, PAH sources present in the oil contaminated soil depicted the predominance of mixed pyrogenic activities such as petroleum, biomass and coal combustion. Petrogenic sources were observed close to the point source.


Keywords: Diagnostic ratio, Oil spill, total hydrocarbon content, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon




Physicochemical Quality Assessment of River Orashi in Eastern Niger Delta of Nigeria

Enetimi I. Seiyaboh, Tariwari C.N Angaye, Blessing Chidinma Okogbue

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 143-148 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: River Orashi is one of the major river in the Niger Delta, being a sister tributary that formed the triangular Delta with Rivers Nun and Focardos. The bioavalabiliy and water quality of any river is reflection some vital water quality parameters. In this study, river water samples were randomly collected from several stations of the river in both dry and wet seasons, and analyzed for physicochemical and other elemental parameters. Result were reported as; temperature (26.37 - 26.77 oC), pH (6.52 - 7.06), turbidity (22.17 - 31.23 NTU), conductivity (25.07 – 82.33 μS/cm), dissolved oxygen (5.80 - 15.73 mg/l), Biological oxygen demand (4.00 – 6.97 mg/l), total dissolved solid (6.77 - 12.58 mg/l), total alkalinity (1.53 – 2.20 mg/l), hardness (1.70 – 4.17 mg/l), nitrite (0.01 - 0.45 mg/l), nitrate (0.03 - 0.38 mg/l), sulphate (2.10 – 4.53 mg/l), chloride (0.03 - 0.38 mg/l), sodium(1.55 – 3.27 mg/l), potassium (1.08 – 8.35 mg/l), calcium (1.32 -14.54mg/l), Magnesium (0.38 - 8.41mg/l), manganese (0.003 – 0.01 mg/l), and total iron ranged from 0.01mg/g to 0.20 mg/l. Our findings indicate mild anthropogenic activities around the Orashi river. We therefore urge government and community leaders to intervene and educate inhabitants around the river on the danger posed by anthropogenic activities.


Keywords: Orashi River, Anthropogenic activity, Physicochemical parameters, Niger Delta




Seasonal Variation in Condition Factor of Some Important Fish Species from Ikoli Creek, Niger Delta 

Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 143-148 | PDF | HTML

Enetimi I. Seiyaboh, Iniobong Reuben Inyang and Blessing Chidinma Okogbue


Abstract: This study investigated seasonal variation in condition factor of five important fish species Ikoli creek, Niger Delta Nigeria. The fish samples were obtained from the creek with the assistance of local fishermen. The condition factor was determined using standard biometric method. Results showed that condition factor ranged from 0.81 – 2.09 and 0.81 – 1.87 for wet and dry season respectively. Synodontis clarias and Schilbe mystus has condition factor greater than 1 and Gnathonemus deboensis and Citharinus citharus had condition factor less than 1. This suggests that seasons affect well-being of a fish. Also, well-being of a fish differs between different species. Lower condition factors observed for Gnathonemus deboensis and Citharinus citharus also suggest that anthropogenic activities in the creek is having impact on fish-well-being.


Keyword: Aquaculture, Condition factor, Fisheries, Ikoli creek




Effect of Homogenous Ceramic Waste on Drying Shrinkage of Mortar

 Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 149-152 | PDF | HTML

Nor Hasanah Abdul Shukor Lim, Mostafa Samadi, Arezou Shafegat, Nur Farhayu Ariffn, Ali Keyvanfar, Abdul Rahman Mohd. Sam


Abstract: Concrete has become important building material in the construction industry due to its mechanical and physical properties. However, large needs of concrete usage lead to the depletion of natural resources. Therefore the use of industrial by-product has been given attention. Ceramic materials are largely used worldwide and consequently, produced large amount of waste from the tile manufacturers and construction industry. These wastes were dumped in landfills and not recyclable. This study investigates the effect of ceramic powder as cement replacement and ceramic fine aggregates as sand replacement on the strength development and drying shrinkage of the mortar. The cement was replaced by 40% ceramic powder by weight of cement. The specimens were cast in 50 x 50 x 50 mm cube for compressive strength test and 25x25x250 mm size for drying shrinkage. The fineness of ceramic powder used is less than 45µm. The developments of compressive strength were studied for all samples. It is found that the increases replacement cause growing strength of samples containing homogenous ceramic waste. The shrinkage value of ceramic mortar was reduced by 16% compared to OPC mortar thus, shows better performance in restraining the shrinkage deformation of the mortar. Furthermore, with replacing cement and natural fine aggregates by ceramic powder and ceramic fine aggregates reduces the usage of natural resources and minimizes the landfills problem.


Keywords: Composite cement; mortar, drying shrinkage, homogenous ceramic waste




Multifunctional Concrete Material: Construction Management Point of View

 Volume 4  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 153-155 | PDF | HTML

Ali Keyvanfar, Arezou Shafaghat, Nor Hasanah Abdul Shukor, Mostafa Samadi

Abstract: In this short note, the authors are highlighting extreme lack of matured consideration of experimental decision science as well as constructability studies in multifunctional concrete materials research. Having experience in research on self-healing, waterproof concrete, unti-algaea and unti-fungi concrete, thermal diode concrete, and heat conductive and waterproof concrete [1-17] with construction management background the authors are imposing the taxonomy of body of knowledge in multifunctional concrete material as an “outsider in the house”. Recently, there is an extensive attention by research community on multifunctional materials applicable for construction industry. This, as a self-downstream requirement, has been emerged in multifunctional concrete materials as demand driven solution. It is while, outcome of this multifunctional concrete materials was not studied under construction mangers evaluation and assessment. To this end, “Decision science of experimental design” and “Constructability of findings” are two major research shortcomings in multifunctional concrete design and development.

 Keywords: Multifunctional Concrete; Multifunctional Material; Construction Management; Constructability; and Decision Science



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