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Volume 4, Issue 2, (2016)

Table of Contents




Environmental Impact of Scrap Metal Dumpsites on Vegetation, Soil and Groundwater in Yenagoa Metropolis, Nigeria

Tariwari C .N. Angaye1, Woyengidoubara W.T. Angaye, Godbless N. Oyinke, Odigo Konmeze

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 31-36 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The environment is an intrinsic resource that sustains man and all living organisms for growth, and survival. As such the protection of the environment against adverse impacts must be sustained. This study assessed the impacts of scrap metal dumping on soil, water and vegetation in Yenagoa metropolis. Soil, groundwater and vegetation samples were randomly collected from scrap metal dumpsites in Yenagoa Metropolis. The samples were similarly analyzed for Heavy metals using standard analytical methods. Results of soil quality for surface (0-15cm) and subsoil (15-30cm) were 12.27 74.27 and 6.21 52.13 mg/kg respectively (iron), 7.24 35.73 and 11.41 33.57 mg/kg (copper), 14.23 47.17 and 12.11 36.22 mg/kg (manganese), 11.07 49.38 and 17.42 35.72 mg/kg (zinc), 24.43 47.67 and 17.11 32.38 mg/kg (aluminum), 11.48 35.77 and 9.53 31.22 mg/kg for Nickel. For water quality, the pH ranged from 4.62 6.33. While the level of iron, copper, manganese, zinc, aluminum and nickel ranged from 3.27 9.73, 0.0152 0.071, 0.0023 0.0023, 0.0022 0.523, 0.0023 -0.0023 and 0.005 0.005 mg/l respectively. On the other hand, concentrations of manganese, aluminum and nickel recorded were below detection limit. For vegetation, Iron, copper and zinc ranged from 0.338 3.027 mg/kg, 0.0152 0.1071 mg/kg and 0.0023 0.223 mg/kg respectively. While, manganese, aluminum and nickel were not detected. Based on the findings of this research, it is recommended that scrap metal dumping in Yenagoa metropolis should be subjected to periodic monitoring.


Key words: Impacts, Scrap metal, Bayelsa state, Mitigation, Solid waste.




Assessment of Open Well Water Contamination in High Density Residential Area

Tijjani Garba, Kabiru G. Ilelah, Mukatari Ahmed Kwari, Lukman S. Sadiq, Mohammed J. Sani, Olanrewaju L. Zulkarnain

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 37-40 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The study was carried out to ascertain open water quality for human consumption in a high density area where the source of water is limited to open wells and where there are no consideration giving between open well and a pit latrine, soak ways and drainages. Stratified random sampling techniques was use to select nine open wells where samples were taken three times to ascertain and validate the result of the water analysis. Coli form test was used to determine the presence of microbial contaminates, pocket conductivity meter was used to determine the concentration of some chemical element and compound and spectrophotometer was used to analyze some physical parameters. From the result of the analysis it was discovered that nitrate exceed the limit in about 75% of the samples analyzed while e- coli bacteria was detected in 8 out of the 9 samples analyzed. But Iron was found to fall below the minimum requirement. The study while considering that the sources of both nitrate and e coli is normally from sewages it can be attributed to lack of conforming to established standard of 30 meters between well water and nearest sewer thereby allowing the possible seepage of the contaminates contaminants into the underground water and also the open well practice allows for susceptibility to non-point source of nitrate through pollution from surface water runoff. The study conclude that there is need for another source of domestic water supply to the area and recommend the use of other additional water purification techniques that is consumer friendly for households uses.


Keywords: Water Contaminants. Analysis, High density, Open well water, Samples




Microbial Characterization of Maize Fermentation Water during Ogi Production

Lovet T. Kigigha, Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Ifeoma Peace Okowa

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 41-45 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: This study characterized the microorganism found in 0 96 hours maize fermentation medium during ogi production (a cereal based porridge). Dried yellow maize were purchased from three maize sellers at Rumuomasi market, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The samples were fermented using sterile water for 0 96 hours. About 2ml of the fermentation water was aseptically collected. Standard microbiological characterization of the isolates was carried out. Results revealed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Corynebacteria and Lactobacillus species were the main microbes found in the fermentation medium within 96 hours of fermentation. Other microbes found in the medium included Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus species (bacteria), Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Fusarium, Geotrichum species (Fungi). There was decline in the TCFU ml-1 followed by increasing pH as the fermentation progressed. This would suggest that the fermentation medium gradually became unfavorable to the microbial population. The implication of the effect of pH variability with the preponderance of the isolates over the period of fermentation was discussed.


Keywords: Cereal, Fermentation, Maize, Microorganisms, Ogi




Comparative Health Risk Assessment of Asbestos in Tehran, Iran

Tijjani Hossein Tavakoli; Aryandokht Azari; Maryam Pazoki

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 46-51 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Health risk assessment has been used to investigate the cancer and non-cancer risk of Asbestos in the air of Tehran, Iran. This study focused on the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma on the residents of the region. It presents an overview of Asbestos concentration in 31 samples with the average concentration of 0.01f/ml in different districts in Tehran. Results provided by EPA (IRIS) analysis showed the total lifetime cancer risk of 46.3 10−5. Based on the risk calculations presented in EPA (1986a), the average cancer risk value of lung cancer and mesothelioma was calculated as a discrete value for smokers and nonsmokers. Assuming lifetime continuous exposure due to inhalation, the expected incidence is 46 and 152 mesothelioma deaths, and 42 and 13 lung cancer deaths per 100,000 persons for smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. In addition, In accordance with the Air Quality Guidelines of the World Health Organization database, the extra risk of lung cancer between 2.4210-5 and 1.1310-3, for smokers and 2.8610-6 and 1.1310-3 for nonsmokers was calculated.


Keywords: Health risk, Asbestos, EPA, Inhalation




Sugar Mill Effluent Induced Changes in Germination and Biochemical of Hybrid Brinjal (Solanummelongena l. var. pruthvi)

Vaithiyanathan, T, M. Soundari, and P. Sundaramoorthy

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 52-57 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Sugar mills play a major role in polluting the environment specially water bodies and land by discharging their effluent. This polluted water is being used for irrigation due to water scarcity. It harmfully affects the growth and yield of crops. In the present study, physico-chemical parameters of sugar mill effluent were recorded. It not only contains the toxic substances but also having same amount of nutrients which are needed for the growth of plants. The effect of various concentrations (control, 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) of sugar mill effluent on seed germination behaviour of hybrid brinjal (Solanum melongena L. var. Pruthvi) was studied. The morphological growth parameters such as germination percentage, seedling length, seedling fresh weight, seedling dry weight, vigour index, and phytotoxicity were taken into consideration. The result shows that the lower concentration (10 percent) of effluent increased the germinating percentage and growth and higher concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of effluent decreased the germination percentage, seedling growth, fresh weight and dry weight of brinjal and also biochemical such as chlorophyll, amino acid and starch.


Keywords: Solanum melongena L., sugar mill effluent, seed germination, phytotoxicity



Removal and Recovery of Pollutants from Wastewater by Using Continuous Liquid Membrane System: A Review

Alif Azwan Abdul Wahab

Volume 4 | Issue 2 | Pages: 58-61 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Liquid membrane has received significant interest among the researchers as it provides efficient technology in treating wastewater. However the used of liquid membrane only available in batch and laboratory scale and only a few can be found in the industries. The restriction were related to the instability of liquid membrane such as small interfacial area for bulk liquid membrane (BLM), membrane swelling for emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) and membrane breakthrough for supported liquid membrane (SLM). Thus, this review will discuss on the work of researchers to overcome those problems mostly in batch and laboratory scale. A few applications on continuous liquid membrane in industry application also will be addressed. Eventually, this review will provide the prospective of liquid membrane as the future continuous treatment method in wastewater treatment.


Keywords: Continuous liquid membrane, emulsion liquid membrane, supported liquid membrane, bulk liquid membrane, and future prospect






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