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Volume 4, Issue 1, (2016)

Table of Contents




Analysis of Viscoelasticity in Pipe Systems in Frequency Domain

Nazari Rasoul, Mohammad Kangazian, Amid Hadi, Milad Babadi Soultanzadeh

Volume 4  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 1-5 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Unsteady flow is the result of turbulence (valve shut, pump deactivation, etc.) in the steady flow. A sudden change in the velocity of fluid, flowing inside the tube, brings about an abrupt change in pressure and water hammer occurs as the result. Because of internal fluid-structure interaction inside the pipe, this phenomenon effects on the pipe system. During water hammer phenomenon, considerable dynamic forces are exerted on the pipe. If these forces cause deformation of the structure, Fluid-structure interaction occurs. Thus, the present research intended to investigate the pip dynamic behaviour in frequency domain. In time models proposed for solving water hammer equations in pipe structure, because of using interpolation a great deal of time was required for transmission of hydraulic parameters to structure equations and vice versa. Therefore, by simplicity of water hammer differential equation in frequency domain, the problem was solved in this domain. The comparison made between the achieved results of this research and those obtained by other researchers confirmed the accuracy and efficiency of this method.


Key words: Unsteady Flow, Fluid-Structure interaction, Water Hammer, Frequency Domain



Effect of cooking on the Climbing Pepper (Piper nigrum) on Antibacterial Activity

Lovet T. Kigigha, Akpoebidei Apreala and Sylvester Chibueze Izah

Volume 4  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 6-9 | PDF | HTML


 Abstracts: The effect of cooking on the Climbing Pepper (Piper nigrum) on antibacterial activity of climbing pepper or black pepper (Piper nigrum) was tested on an enteric bacterium (Escherichia coli) and on a superficial etiologic agent (Staphylococcus aureus) and the activity was compared to the inhibitory activity of 1% Ampiclox (a broad-spectrum antibiotic) as the control.  Indication was that the two bacterial test isolates were significantly more sensitive to the hot water, pepper-soup and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum than the Ampiclox control treatment. Results obtained after 72 hours indicated that on the whole, E.coli was more sensitive than S.aureus in all the treatments. The highest zone of inhibition was shown by the activity of hot water extract on E.coli (3.87 E +01 ± 3.8) P = < 0.001. The least activity was by the effect of 1% Ampiclox on S. aureus (6.3 E+0 ± 1.7). Pair-wise analysis of the treatments (Tukey Test) compared to the effect of Ampiclox on S.aureus indicated the following significant responses: Effect of hot water extract on E.coli values ranging from   3.87E+01 (± 3.8) to 6.3 E+0 (± 1.7); P= <0.001). Effect of pepper-soup extract on E.coli values ranging from 3.66 E+01 (± 2.8) to 6.3 E+0 (± 1.7); P = 0.001. Effect of ethanol extract on E.coli values ranging from 3.35E+01 (± 4.2) to 6.3 E+0 (± 1.7); P = 0.003. Effect of pepper-soup extract on S. aureus values ranging from 3.14E+01 (± 3.6) to 6.3 E+0 (± 1.7); P = 0.006. The pepper-soup extract thus exhibited significant antibacterial effect against both test bacteria. While the traditional medicinal use of black-pepper from this investigation could be tentatively justified; the probable health implication of the effect of the pepper-soup extract on the enteric and superficial etiologic agents was discussed.


Keywords: Climbing pepper, Piper nigrum, pepper-soup, Enterobacteriaceace, E.coli, S.aureus.



Prospects of Waste to Energy in Institutional Buildings

ADAMU Mohammed Babayoč*, YERIMA Egho1, YAKUBU Yahaya. Babanyara2, AWWAL Nasiru Umar3

Volume 4  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 10-16 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Waste and Energy have cohabited for a very long time as electric energy come from fossil fuels which invariably is from waste. The quantum of electric energy harnessed for development most especially in the developing Nations has remained very low. There has also been a growing desire by Nations to opt for alternative energy, with this eminent treat our Colleges and Tertiary Institutions are not left out of this quagmire. It is why this study investigated the waste to energy management and generation on yelwa campus of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi, as a prospect of waste to energy in institutional buildings, through a questionnaire adoption and chi-square analysis; from the findings, the available facilities for the collection and disposal of the wastes were inadequate, which resulted in the personal management of wastes by individuals in the community who either dispose such wastes in unused septic tanks, old and unused reservoir(s) and in some cases indiscriminately in open space within the campus finally, about 27.82 tons of waste is generated annually from five faculties and suggested the adoption of a viable option of converting this generated waste to usable energy.


Keywords: Waste, Energy, Campus, Alternative, Generation




Reproductive Phenology of True Mangrove Species in Pichavaram Mangrove Forests, Tamilnadu, India - A Comparative account

A. Arunprasath and M. Gomathinayagam

Volume 4  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 17-21 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The target of this study was to analyse various phonological characteristics and reproductive biology of mangroves in Pichavaram for developing a data bank which could be of help to forest managers in planning for regeneration of species in the forest. We collected data on number of days taken by species to flower and to produce mature propagules/seeds. We also recorded all phenophases of each species and maturity characteristic of mangrove seeds in Pichavaram forest blocks. Storage life of seeds materials for various mangrove species was also tested with the help of mist chamber design. Excoecaria agallocha and Acanthus ilicifolius take only 2-3 months to produce mature hypocotyls whereas Rhizophora mucronata, Bruguiera cylindrica and Xylocarpus mekongensis complete these phases between 4 and 6 months. 30 % of seeds of Rhizophora apiculata and Ceriops decandra germinated after a storage period of up to 45 days showing higher viability than other species. However, fresh seeds of a majority of mangrove species exhibited more than 65-94 % germination. Proper identification of period of collection, maturity characteristics and germination timings will aid in better regeneration of mangroves in Pichavaram.


Keywords: Germination, Mangrove, Phenology, Pichavaram, Seeds.




Performance Analysis of Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment Plant with Physicochemical Characterizations

Tadele Assefa and Omprakash Sahu

Volume 4  |  Issue 1 |  Pages: 22-30 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: In Ethiopia the rules of Ministry of Environment factories wastewater must treat before discharge as well as monitor the quality of their wastewater and stay within national discharge quality standard. Even there is stick rule and regulation some time due to in proper management or lack of technical expertise characteristics of the effluent cross the dischargeable limit. The aim of research work is to examine the performance of effluent treatment of Textile Industry and study the physicochemical parameter.


Keywords: Characteristics; Effluent; Management; Treatment; Wastewater






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