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Volume 3, Issue 4, (2015)

Table of Contents


Controlling Stormwater Runoff Pollution Best Practices of Green Highway Developments   

Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Yao Bigah, Ali Keyvanfar, Arezou Shafaghat1, Jahangir Mirza, Hesam Kamyab

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 170-172 | PDF | HTML



Green Highway Development Features to Control Stormwater Runoff Pollution

Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Yao Bigah, Ali Keyvanfar, Arezou Shafaghat, Jahangir Mirza, Hesam Kamyab

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 173-175 | PDF | HTML



Determining the Changeability of Groundwater Level in the Southwestern Part of Bangladesh using Geographic Information System (GIS): A Spatio-Temporal Analysis

S. M. Saify Iqbal, Md. Juel Rana Kutub, Premanondo Debnath, Nishat Falgunee, Shahreen Muntaha Nawfee, Shahadat Islam Sojib

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 176-183 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Groundwater is one of the most important freshwater sources in Bangladesh which is used for drinking, household chores and irrigation. Due to high population pressure and excessive withdrawal, this important resource is under a lot of pressure. This study was designed to assess the present groundwater condition of the southwestern part of Bangladesh. Groundwater depth data of 231 wells from 20 districts were collected from Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and analyzed in ArcGIS 10.1 and Microsoft Excel 2010. Data analysis showed that all over the year, groundwater lies beneath 0 to 10 m of sediment in the southwestern part of this country. During the pre-monsoon season, groundwater level ranges from 6 to 10 m in Magura, Rajbari, Jhenaidaha and its adjacent areas, but when the monsoon starts water level varies from 4 to 7 m except some parts of Magura as the monsoon season is characterized by heavy rainfall. On the other hand, water level varies from 1-4 m in the coastal areas of the southwestern part of this country. Basically, the larger values are mostly associated with urban areas having groundwater level ranging between 6 and 12 m. During the monsoon season, there is a wide disparity of groundwater condition except the coastal zone as it shows homogeneity. So significant variation in groundwater depth was observed throughout the study area. The impact of the urbanization was seen clearly which leads to the lowering of groundwater level that can cause the catastrophic events like earthquake, subsidence and pollution in this country.


Keyword: Groundwater, Freshwater Source, Monsoon, ArcGIS 10.1, Water Table.



Planetary Boundaries Must not be Crossed for the Survival of Humanity

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 184-200 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: At present we are living in an increasingly globalized world. The scientific impact of the planetary boundary framework is based on biological, physical and chemical structures, and also is an important item for the sustainability. During the last five decades, global population, food production, and energy consumption have increased remarkably. For the growing population, sustainable economic development and standard of living, including living space, food, fuel, and other materials by sustaining ecosystem services and biodiversity are necessary. This article tries to identify the sustainable development policy on the basis of planetary boundaries. This planet has limited natural resources but human beings are using these in unplanned and competitive ways. Since 2008 scientists have been identified nine planetary boundary processes. These provide a safe space for innovation, growth and development in the detection of human prosperity. Out of these nine boundaries four have already been passed due to human activities and two boundaries still need to be determined. If these nine boundaries passed due to unconsciousness and unplanned activities of humankind, then the living organisms of the earth will face threat for the survival. The paper analyzes sufficient theoretical analysis to make it interesting to the readers. The study stresses on sustainable development policy for the welfare of humanities. The results of the study are presented by chemical reactions and sufficient numerical scientific data. An attempt has been taken here to create consciousness among the nations of the world about the effects of the crossing of the planetary boundaries.


Keywords: Biodiversity, Environmental Sustainability, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycle, Planetary Boundaries.



Effect of Residual Antibiotics in Snacks against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

Lovet T. Kigigha, Sylvester Chibueze Izah, Phillip E. Prebo

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 201-203 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: This study assessed the effect of ethanolic, hot water and cold water extracts of processed ready-to-eat snacks containing protenous substances against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The snacks (shawama, Scotch egg and meat pie) were purchased from fast food hawkers in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa state, Nigeria. Disk-diffusion method was used for the sensitivity testing of the various extracts and 1% Ampiclox was used for the comparison of the antibacterial effects. Results showed that ethanolic extracts have superior effect compared to cold and hot water. For hot water treatment, the E. coli zone of inhibition for scotch egg, shawama and meat pie were 8.38, 12.57 and 10.48mm respectively. For cold water extracts, these were 10.48, 13.62 and 8.38mm respectively. For the ethanolic extracts, the zone of inhibition for the snacks was 12.57mm (Scotch egg), 14.67mm (shawama) and 13.62mm (meat pie). For S. aureus, the  corresponding zones of inhibition for the snacks i.e scotch egg, shawama and meat pie were 10.48, 14.67 and 8.38mm respectively (for hot water extract), 10.48, 15.71 and 12.57mm respectively (for ethanolic extract) and 10.48, 12.57 and 10.48mm respectively (for cold water extract). Ethanolic extract had higher zones of inhibition on both isolates. Also the E. coli had superior zone of inhibition compared to 1% Ampiclox than S. aureus. Analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) among the test organisms used in this study based on the treatments. This study showed that residual antibiotics used for protenous sources (e.g egg, meat etc) were transferred to their final products widely consumed by several people as fast foods, which are becoming more popular with students and the working class who spent long hours from home.


Keywords: Food, Protein, Snacks, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus



Prediction of H2O2 Electrogeneration on a RVC Cathode in a Parallel-Plate Cell for Treatment of Industrial Effluents

Yaneth Bustos-Terrones, Jesús Gabriel Rangel-Peraza, Antonio Sanhouse, Ma. Neftalí Rojas-Valencia, Alberto Álvarez-Gallegos

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 204-211 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: A parallel-plate cell was built to electrochemically generate H2O2 using two sizes of reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as cathode and stainless steel mesh as anode. It was possible to predict H2O2 electroproduction on a RVC cathode in a parallel-plate cell according to Faraday’s law. Two RVC cathode lengths were evaluated. For the small RVC cathode (1.25 x 5 x 1cm) different current values were evaluated. From this experimental setup, the optimal current obtained was 80 mA achieving H2O2 production efficiency of 81%. Experimental results were compared with theoretical results and it was found that the model fitted the experimental results fairly well (variation 0.5%). For the large RVC cathode (2.5 x 5 x 1cm), another set of different current values was evaluated. From this experiment, the optimal current was determined to be 170 mA with an H2O2 production efficiency of 54%. These experimental results were also compared with theoretical results generating also a fairly good fit between them (variation 1.5%). Finally, using the large RVC cathode the removal of the dye BB9 (0.08 mM) was evaluated, 94% discoloration was achieved after 15 min of electrolysis and 90% of COD was achieved after 60 min.


Keywords: Prediction, H2O2 production, parallel-plate cell, RVC design, BB9.



Geo-polymer Bacterial Concrete Using Microorganism

Ramin Andalib, Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Mohd Warid Hussin, Ali Keyvanfar, Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Hasrul Haidar Ismail

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 212-214 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The existent research investigates the ability of Bacillus bacteria species to improve the strength of Geo-polymer concrete based on bio-mineralization mechanism. The appropriate cell concentration of bacteria was introduced in ordinary and Geo-polymer concrete by way of the mixing water to compare their strength and durability. In this research, it was found that the compressive strength growth in Geo-polymer bacterial concrete was the highest in comparison to ordinary bacterial concrete at 90th day. For durability study, the specimens were immersed in 5% H2SO4 solution and the result showed that Geo-polymer bacterial concrete had the least weight and strength losses than ordinary bacterial concrete at different ages. This improvement was due to the temperature condition of Geo-polymer bacterial concrete to survive more bacteria for purpose of calcite precipitation. The density and uniformity of concrete were also examined by ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test. The result showed that the density and uniformity of Geo-polymer structural bacterial concrete were more in comparison to other types of concrete.


Keywords: Geo-polymer Bacterial Concrete; Bacillus Strain; Concrete Strength and Durability; UPV Test



Comparing the Estimation of Suspended Load using Two Methods of Sediments Rating Curve and Artificial Neural Network (A Case Study: Cham Anjir Station, Lorestan Province)

Bahador Abbaspour, Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi

Volume 3  |  Issue 4 |  Pages: 215-222 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: It is significantly important to predict and estimate the sediment load of the rivers to manage rivers and dam reservoirs in water projects. In this study, the suspended load of the river is predicted using artificial neural network. In this paper, it is attempted to evaluate the performance of artificial neural networks in predicting the suspended sediments. Using ANN (Multilayer Layer Perceptron Model), the suspended sediment in hydrometric station of Cham Anjir river of Khorramabad has been predicted and the results have been compared with sediment rating curve. Based on the obtained results, ANN presents acceptable results in simulating the suspended load in Cham Anjir station, in such a way that it is of higher accuracy compared to sediment rating curve. The results showed that ANN could be employed to estimate the sediment suspended load with appropriate accuracy and more confidence compared to the rating curve. Here, it should be noted that neural network could not predict the peaks accurately, and this is regarded as a weak point of this model.


Keywords: Suspended Sediment, ANN, Sediment Rating Curve, Khorramabad River.





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