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Volume 3, Issue 3, (2015)

Table of Contents


Physicochemical characteristics and microbial population of palm oil sold in major markets in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa States, Nigeria

Elijah Ige Ohimain and Sylvester Chibueze Izah

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 143-147 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Palm oil has found application in both food and several industries. This study evaluated some physicochemical quality and microbial population of palm oil sold in some major markets in Yenagoa metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of twenty eight palm oil samples were obtained from seven markets, four being from each market. Standard procedures were employed to enumerate the microbial population and physicochemical quality of palm oil. The microbial population ranged from 3.802- 4.858 Log cfu/ml and 2.287 – 3.792 Log cfu/ml for bacteria and fungi respectively. The results of the physicochemical ranged from 4.503 - 8.467 (free fatty acid i.e. FFA), 2.600 - 9.275 Meq/kg (peroxide value), 3.775 – 12.000% (Impurity level), 0.550– 2.425% (moisture content) 191.50– 203.05mgKOH/g (saponification value) and 0.9250 - 0.9875 (Specific gravity). The Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in all the physicochemical in most of the markets apart from saponification value. Parameters such as FFA, impurity, moisture, specific gravity, saponification value were not within the recommended limits, while the microbial population was within the maximum range recommended by Nigerian Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control (NAFDAC) for vegetable oil.


Keywords: Bayelsa state, Market, microbial population, physicochemical properties, quality



Microbial Load and Heavy Metals Properties of Leachates from Solid Wastes Dumpsites in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

Tariwari C.N. Angaye1 Douye V. Zige, and Sylvester C. Izah

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 148-153 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Waste management is a challenge to sustainable development. In Nigeria most wastes are discharged into the environment with little or no treatment. Due to activities of microbes, some of these wastes undergo degradation releasing leachates. The study assessed the microbial population and heavy metals characteristics of leachate from solid waste dumpsites aligning water bodies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Analyses were carried out following standard procedure. Microbial population results showed that Total heterotrophic bacteria, total fungi, total coliform and faecal coliform ranged from 8.23 – 10.79 Log cfu/ml, 6.25 – 8.64 Log cfu/ml, 2.42 – 2.66 Log MPN/100 ml, and 1.97 – 2.34 Log MPN/100 ml respectively,  while the heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Hg, Fe, Pb and Zn ranged from 0.00 – 0.17 mg/l, 0.00 – 0.46mg/l, 0.00 – 0.70mg/l, 0.20 – 0.60mg/l, 0.00 – 0.27 mg/l, 0.20 – 8.41mg/l, 0.27 – 2.77 mg/l and 0.00 – 4.10 mg/l respectively. The heavy metals are in the order Fe>Pb>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cr>Hg>Cd. Analysis of variance showed that there were significance difference (P<0.05) in the microbial populations, and heavy metals apart from Cadmium and Zinc. The levels of contamination amongst the leachates indicated that continuous and precarious dumping of solid waste in areas aligning the coastal areas of the Niger Delta should be discouraged due to their associated health impacts.


Keywords: Niger Delta, dumpsite, leachate, contaminants





Study of Seismic Code Japan BCG, Europe EC8, Chile, America IBC, IS India, and New Iranian Earthquake Code

Mohammad Reza Baradaran, Abolfazl Heydarpoor

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 154-157 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: The earthquake is one of the natural phenomena that are likely to happen in all countries of the world. Therefore, in order to maintain safety, different countries have attempted to write their own seismic Regulations and under these circumstances, the countries that have more seismicity as per the experience of the earthquake and assess the damage caused by the earthquake have written Regulations that conform to their own region. This paper reviews the Regulations in Europe and the countries such as Japan, Chile, America, India and also old and the new Regulations of Iran. In summation, it has been investigated the strong points and failings of each of them. It is worth mentioning that the old version of the Iranian Earthquake Code (Standard No. 2800 – 3rd. Edition) & the new edition of Iranian Earthquake Code (Standard No. 2800 – 4th. Edition) have been evaluated herein, and has been stated the applied modifications as well.


Keywords: Seismic Code, Earthquake, Iran, Japan, Chile, America, India.



Application of Iron Slag at Different Pavement Layers

Zolfaghar Zarei, Mohammad Reza Baradaran

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 158-162 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Reusing waste material in the past decade has got too importance and the reason is emphasizing on environment laws and reducing the pollution of industrial garbage. Steel-making operations has faced with this problem because of producing a large amount of waste material during production which in the case of steel industries ability to recover and using this products, these products create many problems in terms of pollution for environment with regard to their high production volume including slag, dust, sludge, shell sheets and oxide layers in which slag has got the most importance than others because of high production rate. Nowadays, broad research has performed in the world to recycling these side products which have resulted to solutions to recover them. In Iran with regard to the increasing of steel and slag production, research on them and appropriate solutions to use in different applications and reducing environmental pollution seems necessary. This paper addresses the investigation of iron slag at different pavement layers and the influences like frictional resistance, track disruption and bearing strength that it produces.


Keywords: Iron slag, frictional resistance, track disruption.



Investigating the Effect of Wide Surcharge and Inclination Angle of Nails in Excavation (A Case Study: Central District of Isfahan City)

Rassoul Ajalloeian, S. Fazllolah Hashemi

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 163-169 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: Maintenance of excavation, especially in urban areas, is essential and crucial in order to avoid risks resulted from the excavation on the adjacent buildings. So, this study tries firstly to investigate various methods used to maintain and stabilize the excavations, then deals with the factors affecting the stability of excavations trussed by nailing system. Applying the existed numerical methods, the study performs a modelling of excavation behaviours in the central district of Isfahan city, and then a comprehensive analysis of such structures’ performance. Thus, the factors influencing the excavation are studied, gathering the data related to geo-technique studies on the central district of Isfahan city. The various factors such as inclination angle of nails, wide surcharge over the excavation are studied more exactly by performing the reliability coefficient analysis on extended models of excavations.


Keywords: Trussed excavation, Nailing system, EEM, Reliability, Wide surcharge



Optimization of Coagulation/Flocculation for Treatment of Wastewater

Abdolreza Karbassi, Maryam Pazoki

Volume 3  |  Issue 3 |  Pages: 170-174 | PDF | HTML


Abstract: One of the industrial areas in the south of Iran is Bandar Imam Petrochemical Economic Zone which has a lot of petrochemical complex, Farabi Petrochemical complex is one of those places. Coagulation/flocculation could be a typical methodology in water and wastewater treatment that a number of chemicals are added to assist the coagulation/flocculation and causes to the sedimentation.  In this paper, the sampling and measurement of characteristics wastewater containing turbidity, pH, COD, TDS and etc. were done, also Efficiency of coagulant was assessed in terms of the COD, TDS and turbidity also the optimum concentration to determine the coagulant and the pH effluent were investigated.The results show that the optimum coagulants for decreasing organic matters of wastewater, the amount of coagulant is 10mm per liter of wastewater. With this amount can be reduced by more than 50% of COD.


Keywords: Wastewater, effluent, Farabi Petrochemical complex, coagulant, jar test




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