Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

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Volume 2, Issue 4, (2014)

Table of Contents

 

A Study and Comparison on Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength and Elastic Modulus of Confined Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) by Polymeric Material GFRP Investigation of Self Compacting Concrete Confined

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 124-129 | [Full Text] PDF (187 KB)

 

Babak Mansouri 1, Mohammad Reza Baradaran 1, Vahid Chegeni 2, Yahya Kazemi 1

1-  Department of Civil Engineering, Meymand Center, Islamic Azad University, Meymand, Iran.

2- M.Sc, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, kerman, Iran.

 

Abstract — Self-compacting concrete does not have problems associated with conventional concrete construction, including the inability to fill the mold, inability to completely surround the reinforcement in reinforced concrete structures, vibration equipment performance and noise caused by their. Using reinforced polymer sheets became conventional from mid-1980s and replaced of polymer sheets in order to overcome the disadvantages caused by reinforced with steel sheets. Unlike steel sheets, it was not being under corrosive agents and it is resistant against harmful effects caused by acids, salts and other environment corrosive. Many of the proposed relationships for estimating the compressive strength of confined concrete and similar strain have been obtained based on the experimental results and they possess a lot of diversity, this shows the behavioral complexity of confined concrete and its dependence on the various parameters. In this paper, experimental results are presented concerning the behavior of self-compacting concrete enclosed as single-layer and double-layer by polymeric material GFRP. Cylindrical specimens of self-compacting concrete are used with dimensions of 150 × 300 and 100 × 200 mm for testing compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity.

 

Keywords   Self-compacting concrete (SCC), GFRP, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity

 

 

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Liquefaction of Non-Homogeneous Earth Dams’ Heels by Variations of Depth and Thickness of Non-Compacted Foundation Layer

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 130-133 | [Full Text] PDF (1260 KB)

 

Abdolghaffar Ghorbanipour 1, Mohammad Reza Baradaran 2, Babak Mansouri 2, Sahar Najmeddin 3

1-  Department of Civil Engineering,, Zarghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zarghan, Iran.

2- Department of Civil Engineering, Meymand Center, Islamic Azad University, Meymand, Iran.

3- M.Sc., Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

 

Abstract — Liquefaction usually occurs in saturated loose sandy soils. The aim of the present study is to examine liquefaction of earth dams’ heels due to a non-compacted saturated layer (a liquefiable layer) within the foundation of earth dams with different thicknesses and depths during an earthquake. For this purpose, a non-homogenous earth dam was founded on a compact soil layer. Analysis was performed with the help of QUAKE/W. The special feature of QUAKE/W is the ability to display liquefiable zones. The results showed that simultaneous increase in the thickness and depth of the liquefiable foundation layer will reduce the liquefaction potential. The declining trend becomes more critical with increasing the thickness of liquefiable layer.

 

Keywords  Liquefaction, Earth dam heel, Earthquake, Non-compacted foundation

 

 

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Performance of Insulated Roofs with Elevated Outdoor Conditions Due to Global Warming

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 134-142 | [Full Text] PDF (747 KB)

 

R. U. Halwatura

Senior Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, University of Moratuwa, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka.

 

Abstract — Global warming is a serious condition when it comes to analyzing how to achieve thermal comfort by natural means. With the predicted rise of temperature from 2-4 0C, the probability of people turning to alternative thermal comfort options such as air conditioning would increase creating energy crises. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate building construction methods that increase thermal comfort. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of expected global warming on thermal comfort related expectations of people and to develop strategies that can assist to minimize the energy needed for thermal comfort especially in tropical climates. The results suggest that construction of multi-storey houses with small foot print and insulated concrete slab as roof has the possibility of creating desirable micro–climates. The concrete slab roof provides the possibility of creating roof top vegetation which can significantly reduce the indoor temperature. 

 

Keywords    Global warming, Insulated concrete slab, Roof top vegetation, comfort zone, Indoor temperature

 

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Development of Partition Functions of Ramanujan’s Works

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 143-149 | [Full Text] PDF (300 KB)

 

Sabuj Das 1, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan 2

1-Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics. Raozan University College, Bangladesh.

2-Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

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AbstractIn 1986, Dyson defined the rank of a partition as the largest part of a partition  minus the number of parts of . In 1988, Garvan discussed the theta series in x like A(x), B(x), C(x), D(x) and also discussed Jacobi’s triple product Identity (1829). Both of the authors have worked on Ramanujan’s seminal works “Ramanujan’s Lost Notebooks”. This paper proves the Theorem 1 with the help of Dyson’s rank conjectures N(0,5,5n +1), N(2,5, 5n +1) and proves the Theorem 2 with the help of Garvan’s theta series and Dyson’s rank conjectures N(1,5, 5n+2), N(2,5, 5n+2), respectively. An attempt has been taken here to the development of the Ramanujan’s works with the contributions of Dyson and Garvan. Definitions and simple mathematical calculations are presented here to make the paper easier to the common readers.

 

Keywords    Congruent, Jacobi’s Triple product, Modulo, Ramanujan’s Lost Notebook, Theta series.

 

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Simulation of Atmospheric Conditions and Trajectories for Dust Storms in the Middle East

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 150-154 | [Full Text] PDF (4480 KB)

 

Alireza Aslemand, Ahmad Anvari*, Behrooz Yarizadeh

Graduate Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

 

AbstractDust storms which disperse a high amount of fine particulate matters have increased exponentially in west of Iran. These fine particulate matters cause a lot of problems on such as adverse effect on human health as well as environment. The main aim of this study is investigating the critical dust atmospheric conditions at a dust storm which was occurred in July 2009 in Mesopotamia region. Furthermore, in order to control the dust storms, hotspots were estimated by using Weather Research and Forecasting. In addition, dust storm trajectories were studied by Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model. It was found that the critical condition occurred when the critical frictional wind speed varied from 0.7 – 0.8 m/s. Besides, the origins of the Middle Eastern dust storms which frequently impact the residents of this arid region were studied. The source region limited to 33°N to 36°N and 44°E to 47°E coordinates. At six different altitudes the trajectories were studied, which had two main motion patterns. 

 

Keywords Dust storm, HYSPLIT, Iran, Mesopotamia, Trajectory, WRF

 

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Acute toxicity of Butachlor to Caspian Kutum (Rutilus frisii Kutum Kamensky, 1991)

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 155-157 | [Full Text] PDF (80 KB)

 

Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah1, Aliakbar Hedayati1, Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi2, Safoura Abarghoei2, Mohammad Hasan Gerami3*, Hamed Ghaffari Farsani4

1- Young Researchers Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran.

2- Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.

3- Department of Fisheries, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.

4- Young Reasearchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.

                       

Abstract — Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. Butachlor is an herbicide of the acetanilide class, which is used widely in agricultural fields. At the present study, lethal concentration (LC50) of butachlor was calculated for Rutilus frisii Kutum. Samples weighted 4 ± 1 [mean ± SD] gr. The experiment were carried out in static condition and based on instructions of Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (O.E.C.D) in 4 days under controlled water physicochemical factors with pH was 8-8.3, BOD 690 mg/l total hardness 210 mgCaCo3 and temperature was 17 ± 0.1 °C. All fishes were acclimatized in 60×55×30 cm aquarium for 10 days. Treated aquariums with concentration ranges 0.11, 0.22, 0.33, 1, 1.66, 2.33, 3.33, 6.66, 13.33, 16.66 mg/l of butachlor and control group (no toxic concentration) were performed. LC1, LC10, LC30, LC50, LC70, LC90 and LC99 were calculated for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. LC50 96h butachlor for R. frisii Kutum was obtained 0.258 ppm. These findings suggest that butachlor is moderately toxic and moderately irritating for this species. Clinical symptoms including irregular protrusion of the eyes and irregular swimming were observed.

 

Keywords Butachlor, Caspian Kutum, Acute toxicity

                                                                                                  

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Efficient of biofertilizers on growth and yield characteristics of groundnut Arachis hypogaea L.

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 156-161 | [Full Text] PDF (82 KB)

 

Mahakavi.T1, L.Baskaran1, M.Rajesh2 and K.Sankar Ganesh2*

 

1- Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608002, Tamil Nadu.

2- Department of Botany, A.V.C.College, Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai-609 305, Tamil Nadu.

 

Abstract — one of the major concerns in today’s world is the pollution and contamination of soil. An answer to this is the bio-fertilizers an environmentally friendly fertilizers. The main sources of bio-fertilizers are bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria. Now used in many countries bio-fertilizers are organisms that enrich the nutrient quality of soil. Hence the present study has been carried to find out the effect of Bio-fertilizers on various stages of Groundnut growth. Germination studies were conducted with various Bio-fertilizers applied in pots containing soil. Morphological parameters, photosynthetic pigments and bio-chemical parameters were observed and recorded on seedling, flowering and yielding stage. Yield parameters were recorded at the time of Harvest. These parameters were found to increase on the application of Bio-fertilizers than in control.

 

Keywords Bio-fertilizers, pollution and contamination, seedling and groundnut.

 

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Production and characterization of biosurfactant from bacterial species isolated from oil contaminated soil

Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages: 162-165 | [Full Text] PDF (140 KB)

 

N. Sharpana Bharathi 1,2 and P. Usha Rani 2

1- Environmental Impact Assessment Division Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History (SACON) Anaikatty (PO), Coimbatore – 641 108, India.

2- Department of Environmental Science, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India.

 

Abstract — Biosurfactants are surface active substance synthesized by living cells. Micro-organisms that degrade hydrocarbon were isolated and screened for their activity. A total of 20 samples of oil contaminated soil were collected and three organisms were isolated and tested with tests like detection of glycolipid, surface tension measurement, emulsification index, heavy metal, antagonistic test, hemolysis, drop collapsing test, and thin layer chromatography for the degradation activity. The three organism’s viz. Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescens degraded the oil in soil. 

 

Keywords Biosurfactant, Bioremediation, surface active substance, hydrocarbon.

 

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Assessment of Underground Water Contamination Due to Early Coal Mining Activities in Nigeria

Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages: 166-170 | [Full Text] PDF (303 KB)

 

Tijjani Garba, 1* Yakubu Yahaya Babanyara 2   Dije Bala Ibrahim1, Ishaya Lot 1

1-Department of Environmental Management Technology Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi-Nigeria

2-Department of Urban and Regional Planning Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Bauchi-Nigeria

 

AbstractThis paper examines the level of mining activities impairment on underground water quality. Five samples whose major water sources is underground water were obtained. The samples obtained were analyzed using Physical, Biological and Chemical Parameters. The result shows most of high concentration of chemical elements impairing on water quality as a result of mining activities such as Nitrate, Chloride, Phosphate, Cyanide, Fluoride, Iron, Manganese etc. Additionally the bacteriological analysis of these water samples revealed the concentration off e coli bacteria in the most boreholes, well, and the stream. The paper concluded that even though borehole were provided to augment the water supply for communities consumption but consideration was not given to streams where waste water from the mining site are normally drained into because it is use by plant and animals. There is therefore the need to treat the water before discharge into the stream. 

 

Key words: Contamination, Mining, Parameters, Samples, Underground water

 

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Air Pollution Tolerance Index and Biochemical constituents of some plants growing in Neyveli Lignite Corporation (NLC), Tamil Nadu, India

Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages: 171-175 | [Full Text] PDF (105 KB)

 

S. Dhanam1*, P.  Rajapandian* and B. Elayaraj2

1- Department of Botany, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Villupuram - 605 602, Tamil Nadu, India.

2- Division of Environmental Science, Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar - 608 002, Tamil Nadu, India.

 

AbstractPlant species can be effectively used as filters to reduce air pollution and also as bio-indicators of urban air quality. Screening of plants for their sensitivity/tolerance level to air pollutants is important because the sensitive plants can serve as bio-indicator and the tolerant plants as sink for controlling air pollution in urban and industrial areas. Biochemical parameters namely Relative Water Content,  leaf extract pH, ascorbic acid, chlorophyll, starch, protein, amino acid, reducing and total sugar were estimated to generate Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) for ten plants each at polluted site and control site. The results showed that Terminalia catappa (18.16 and 16.19) and Mangifera indica (16.01 and 15.98) have recorded high and low values in both the sites respectively. In comparison between the two sites, all the values were slightly higher in the polluted site than the control for all the ten plants and a considerable variation was observed among the four parameters where their percentage variations were considered. Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Calotropis gigantea were found to be tolerant towards air pollution.

 

Key words: Air pollution, relative water content, pH, APTI, biochemical parameters.

 

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Evaluation of Selected Formulas and Neural Network Model for Predicting the Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient in River

Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages: 176-183 | [Full Text] PDF (980 KB)

 

Abbas Parsaie 1*,  Amir Hamzeh Haghiabi 2

1- Ph.D. student of hydro structures, Department of water Engineering, Lorestan University, KhoramAbad, Iran.

2- Associate professor of water Engineering, Lorestan University, KhoramAbad, Iran.

 

AbstractLongitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC) is one of the most important parameters in the river water quality management. Several ways as empirical formulas and artificial intelligent techniques are proposed for predicting the LDC and it is necessary to evaluate the performance of them. In this study, a Multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) model has been developed and 12 formulas empirical formulas were collected. To assess the performance of these formulas and MLP model in a case study problem, calculating the LDC by dispersion routing method for Severn River in UK was considered. Results shows that the best accuracy is related to the Tavakollizadeh and Kashefipour formula (R2≈0.45) based on data set and for Severn River, its accuracy is R2≈0.4. the (MLP) model has acceptable accuracy (R2≈0.83) to predict the  LDC in Severn River.

 

Key words: Longitudinal dispersion coefficient; empirical formula; Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network; dispersion routing method.

 

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Management strategy for improving growth and mineral status of Moringa grown under water stress conditions

Volume 2, Issue 4, Pages: 184-190 | [Full Text] PDF (1790 KB)

 

Mohamed  Moursy Hussein 1,  Camilia Youssef  El-Dewiny 2 and  Medhat Mekhail Tawfik 3

 

1- Water Relation and Field Irrigation Dept. National Research Centre, Dokki Giza Egypt.

2- Soil & Water Use Dept. National Research Centre, Dokki ,Giza Egypt.

3- Field Crops Research Dept. National Research Centre, Dokki ,Giza Egypt.

 

AbstractWater scarcity and drought are the main constraints of crop production. Many technologies have been developed to cope with this environmental problem. So improve crop management under limited amount of available water is a measure issue to maximize the return by unit of water (water productivity). To achieve the aforementioned objectives, a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of the National Research Centre at summer season of 2013 to evaluate the effect of foliar application of potassium sulphate (K2SO4), mono potassium phosphate (KHPO4) and ferrous sulphate (Fe SO4) at the rate of 1% in addition to distilled water as a control treatment. on growth, and mineral status of Moringa plants grown under different water regimes (irrigation after depletion of 40 % of the maximum water holding capacity of the soil (W.H.C.) i.e. normal water supply, 60 % of (W.H.C.) i.e. moderate soil moisture stress and 80 % of (W.H.C.) i.e. severe moisture stress. However, severe moisture stress cause depression in growth characters i.e. plant height, number of branches, dry weight of stem,  leaves, top and whole plant. The highest dry weight of root, stem, leaves, top and whole plant were obtained by irrigation after depletion of 40 % available soil moisture. On the other hand, the dry weight of the root and shoot/root ratio was positively responded with the decreased in availability of moisture before irrigation. Application of foliar fertilizers enhanced all the vegetative growth characters of Moringa plants i.e. plant height, number of branches, root, and stem, leaves and whole plant fresh weight. Data also showed that MKP treatment surpass all the other foliar treatments (except for top/root ratio) which were recorded under Fe treatment. The lowest values were recorded in plants sprayed with distilled water. Moreover, Increasing the percentage of moisture depletion before irrigation, significantly decreased the percentage of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium in Moringa plants. On the contrary water stress treatments significantly increase the content of N, Ca and Na. Application of foliar fertilizers enhancing the content of N, P, K and Mg.

 

Key words: Moringa, Water stress, Foliar fertilization, Growth, Mineral status.

 

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