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Volume 2, Issue 3, (2014)

Table of Contents


Removal of Reactive Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Physico-Chemically Treated Rice Husk

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 77-84 | [Full Text] PDF (193 KB)


Anteneh Worku and Omprakash Sahu


Department of Chemical Engineering, KIOT, Wollo University, Ethiopia.


Abstract — Dye removal onto low cost material is a suitable method for textile wastewater treatment. Rice husk was investigated for its ability to remove reactive dye from aqueous solution. Two modes of operation were performed one with physical treatment and another with physicochemical treatment. All experiments were conducted at batch system and effects of effective parameters include pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration and contact time was investigated. Maximum and minimum value of 94 % and 26.41% for physicochemically and 78% and 12.35 % for physically treated rice husk was obtained. Low pH, high adsorbent dosage and high contact time favors the adsorption whereas the percent dye removal decrease dramatically with the increase of initial dye concentration. Based on the result, Freundlich isotherm (R2 =0.986) and second order kinetic (R2=0.985) are best modules for explanation of adsorption onto Physico-Chemically treated rice husk. The efficient parameters were applied on actual textile dye machine effluent. It was observed that the direct waste increase in dye concentration and efficient removal (91.24%) was observed for adjusted waste. In regard to cost of other methods in dye removal, Physico-Chemically treated rice husk could be suggested as relatively efficient and low cost adsorbent for dye removal from textile wastewater.


Keywords Adsorption; reactive black 5; rice husk; batch operation






Medical Waste Management at Upazila Level in Bangladesh

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 85-94 | [Full Text] PDF (361 KB)


Md. Lokman Hossain 1*, Md. Jaseem Uddin 2


1- Tropical & International Forestry, University of Goettingen, 37077 Gottingen, Germany

2-Institute of Forestry & Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh


Abstract — The study was conducted at healthcare establishments of Abhaynagar Upazila of Jessore District in Bangladesh to quantify amount of medical waste (MW) generated from the medical services; determine physical composition of MW; find out the correlation of waste quantity with relevant factors; identify problems and develop future guideline regarding management. The average waste generation rate was 37.11 kg/hospital, 1.56 kg/bed/day, and 1.90 kg/patient/day. The hazardous waste was recorded 9.71%, whereas, non-hazardous waste 90.29%. MW consisted eight categories of waste materials with vegetable/food being the largest component (74%), and varied significantly (p≤0.05) among other hospitals surveyed. The quantity of MW was positively correlated with the number of occupied beds (R2=0.898, P≤0.05) and with the number of patients (R2=0.785, P≤0.05). Separate legislation must be formulated to address the issue of medical waste management as a separate environmental mandate and regular supervision of them are very much necessary.


Keywords Medical Waste, Health Care, Hazardous, Non-Hazardous, Composition






The Comparison of Finite Element and Finite Difference Methods in Buckling Analysis of Plate Bending

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 95-98 | [Full Text] PDF (361 KB)


Mohammad Reza Baradaran 1, Babak Mansouri 1, Vahid Chegeni 2


1-  Department of Civil Engineering, Meymand Center, Islamic Azad University, Meymand, Iran.

2- M.Sc, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, kerman, Iran.



Abstract — Plate bending is commonly used nowadays, such as water reservoirs, tanks, domes, concrete dams and etc. Therefore, appropriate methods should be used to analyze these structures. In some cases, however, these analytical solutions are not always possible, and we have to search for numerical solutions. The use of numerical approaches enables the engineer to expand his or her ability to solve design problems of practical significance,  The governing equation of thin plate based on classical plate theory (CPT) along with finite element method (FEM) and finite difference method (FDM) are used to solve the equations . The model in ANSYS get buckling local of the plate; besides, to validate the procedures and verify whether it is in good accordance with those methods. At least, the efficiency is computational cost of the procedures compared with each other. The plate model is adopted for the structures. The material, plates of all models, is subject to Hooke’s law and homogeneous. The structures are assumed to be simply supported at the ends. The study is based on the numerical methods which are compared with the exact method. The nonlinear equations of stability are solved with finite element and finite different methods and compared with each other.


Keywords Finite element, Finite difference, Buckling, plate






Biodegradation of Crude Oil by Kocuria sp.

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 99-101 | [Full Text] PDF (234 KB)


Blazo Lalevic *1, Vera Raicevic 1, Iva Atanaskovic 2, Dragan Kikovic 3, Amirreza Talaiekhozani 4, Saud Hamidovic 5, Panagiotis Gkorezis 6


1- University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade-Zemun, Serbia

2- Kneza Milosa 64, Belgrade, Serbia

3- Faculty of natural sciences, Kosovska Mitrovica, Serbia

4- Jami Institute of Technology, Department of Civil Engineering, Isfahan, Iran

5- Faculty of agricultural and food sciences, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

6- Hasselt University, Department Of Environmental Biology, CMK, Universitaire Campus building D, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Belgium


Abstract — Oil fields are not uniformly dispensed on the world’s map, but are limited in several areas such as Persian Gulf region. Frequent international transport by tankers and shipping accidents makes the oil and its products a most important pollutant of ecosystems. After these accidents, different methods have been developed for clean-up of the polluted areas, out of which bioremediation has attracted highest attention. The present paper describes the crude oil degradation by bacteria Kocuria sp. 27/1, isolated from contaminated wastewater by oil hydrocarbons. This bacteria was used for inoculation of mineral salt medium containing 500; 1000; 2000; and 4000 ppm of crude oil (v/v). Incubation was performed in orbital shaker (250 rpm) at 30°C for 7 days. The optical density of the liquid culture and final oil concentration were measured. Results showed that Kocuria sp. 27/1 was capable of crude oil degradation. Throughout the experiment, the optical density was rapidly increased comparing to the control. The results obtained by this research showed that Kocuria sp. 27/1 can potentially be used for application in crude oil biodegradation of natural environments.


KeywordsBiodegradation, bioremediation, crude oil, microorganisms, oil hydrocarbons-contaminated waters






Feasibility Study on Biogas Production Potential from Iran’s Rural Biomass Sources

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 102-105 | [Full Text] PDF (217 KB)


Abdoli M.A, Pazoki M


Graduated Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.


Abstract — Rising fossil energy prices and waste disposal costs, coupled with an increased sense of environmental responsibility, is driving a market for renewable energy. The use of waste products as an energy source will reduce dependence on traditional source of energy and reduce or eliminate environmental concerns associated with waste management. In rural areas anaerobic digestion is a potential way in which the Rural Management Organization (Dehyari) can work together with agricultural sector to address broad issues such as waste management, pollution control, energy self-sufficiency and climate change. The purpose of present paper is the feasibility study on biogas production potential from Iran’s rural Biomass sources. The potential for biogas production from animal manure in Iran’s rural areas is 11195 million cubic meter from 63446021 animals annually. Another biomass source is organic part of solid waste. The findings indicate that the potential for biogas production from organic wastes is 487 million cubic meter from 1249 thousand tons per year.


Keywords Biogas, Biomass, Feasibility Study, Animal Manure, Solid Waste, Energy.







The Effect of Preservation in Formalin on the Morphological Characters of Spirlin (Alburnoides Eichwaldii)

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 106-108 | [Full Text] PDF (115 KB)


Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah and Aliakbar Hedayati


Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.


Abstract — The present study was done to investigate the effects of fixing and preserving in 10% formalin on the morphological characteristics of Spirlin (Alburnoides eichwaldii). For this aim, 35 specimens of Spirlin were collected from Vajargah River, Gilan, Iran. After initial evaluation on morphological characters such as Total Length (TL), Standard Length (ST) and Head Length (HL), samples were fixed and preserved in 10% formalin for 6 months. After this period, samples were removed from formalin and measurement and evaluation of color features were done once again. The results showed shrinkage was common in all of the specimens and changes in body color were clearly distinguishable with fresh fish such a way that the body and fins color were opaque but color pattern is acceptable but the intensity is reduced.


Keywords  Formalin, Spirlin, Morphological characteristics, Fixation






Generation of Municipal Solid Waste in Commercial City of Bangladesh

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 109-114 | [Full Text] PDF (264 KB)



Md. Lokman Hossain1*, Satyajit Roy Das2, Snigdha Talukder2, Mohammed Kamal Hossain3


1-Tropical and International Forestry, Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology, University of Goettingen, 37077 Goettingen, Germany.

2-Assistant Commissioner and Executive Magistrate, Office of Deputy Commissioner, Kishoreganj-2300, Bangladesh.

3-Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh.


Abstract — The study was conducted during January to December 2009 to determine the generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Chittagong City Corporation of Bangladesh. A structured questionnaire was processed and waste collected from different waste generating sources were segregated and weighed. Residential waste generation rate varied in different socio economic groups and was found minimum (0.5 Kg/day) in Low Socio-economic Group and maximum (3.54 Kg/day) in High Socio-economic Group and an average residential unit generated 1.72 kg of waste per day. Commercial waste generation rate by a person was found 0.38 Kg/day. Waste generation rate by an average institution was recorded minimum (5.4 Kg/day) by the religious institution and maximum (17.05 Kg/day) by the government institute and an average institution generated 10.2 kg of waste per day. The average waste generation rate by a large-scale industry was found 435 kg/day and small-scale industry 77 kg/day and average industrial waste generation was 256 kg/day. The average medical waste generation was found 33 kg/day. Medical waste generation rate per patient was 0.595 kg/day. The most important principles underlying effective programs for the management of MSW include the awareness, assignment of legal responsibility, developing the rules and regulations and also need of a national waste management policy and national waste disposal and management guideline.


Keywords   Solid Waste Disposal, Residential Waste, Industrial Waste, Institutional Waste, Waste Management






Structural Performance of Sustainable Waste Palm Oil Fuel Ash-Fly Ash Geo-polymer Concrete Beams

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 115-119 | [Full Text] PDF (520 KB)


Ramin Andalib, Mohd Warid Hussin, Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Mohd Azrin, Hasrul Haidar Ismail


Faculty of Civil Engineering, Construction Research Alliance, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Skudai, 81310 Johor Bahru, Malaysia.


Abstract — This study is an attempt to highlight the use of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) with Fly Ash, instead of cement, in reinforced concrete beams. POFA, a waste from Palm oil mill and Fly Ash, a waste from coal-burning power stations which are cheap and available. It is expected that millions tonnes of palm oil waste will be produced annually and a lot of money will be spent to transport and maintenance the waste. Environment is also being destroyed by the emission of CO2 in Portland cement industries (global warming).Hence, it has become necessary that the study efforts in using of Geo-polymer concrete gain greater attention. In this study, laboratory tests were carried out to determine flexural strength, deflection and crack pattern for three kinds of materials that were used in reinforced concrete beams [ POFA-Fly Ash Geo-polymer concrete, Fly Ash Geo-polymer concrete and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement ) concrete]. The experimental result showed that the behaviour of reinforced POFA- Fly Ash concrete beams was similar to reinforced OPC concrete beams since the cracking and ultimate moments of them were close together in 90th day. Regarding to durability study, POFA-Fly Ash concrete had a better resistance and performance against acidic conditions in comparison with OPC concrete due to more density and uniformity which was proved by ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test.


Keywords   Waste Geo-polymer Concrete Beam; Flexural Strength; Deflection; Crack Pattern; Acidic Conditions, UPV Test.





Impacts of Industrialization on Disproportionate Urban Population Growth and the Remedial Measures

Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages: 120-123 | [Full Text] PDF (283 KB)


 Muhammad Azeem 1, Abdul Qudoos Khan 2, Arshad Ali 3


1- Graduate Student, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.

2- Assoc Prof, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.

3- Asst Prof, National University of Sciences and Technology, Pakistan.


AbstractIndustrialization brings economic prosperity for any nation. It creates livelihood opportunities for large masses of the community. Such development shapes the demographic trend and the rate of rural to urban migration. Industrial units in and around the main cities have resulted in population imbalance in urban areas of Pakistan, degradation of its resources and environment. New settlements in unpopulated areas may help in decentralization of the population clusters and paving a way for sustainable development.


Keywords   Industrialization, unplanned settlements, population outburst, mega cities.













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