Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

Home          Authors Guidelines           Submission           Current Issue          Archive          Indexing          Editorial Board          Contact Us


Volume 2, Issue 2, (2014)


Table of Contents


Surveying effects of fixation in formalin on the morphological characteristics of goldfish (Carassiusauratus)

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 28-30 | [Full Text] PDF (71.9 KB)


Elaheh Hassan Nataj Niazie1*, Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah2, Reza Tarkhani1, Mohammad Javad Vesaghi3, Ahmad Fouladi Sabet1, Fatemeh Abbasi1, Wahid Zamani4, Mojtaba Bayati5, Ali Jafar Nodeh1 and Aliakbar Hedayati2

1- Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and
Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
2- Young Researchers Club, Gorgan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
3- Ph.D. Student of Hormozgan University
4- Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, CNRS UMR 5553, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble, B.P. 53, F-38041,Cedex 9, France.
5- Department of Fishery, Gonbad Kavous University,Gonbad, Golestan, Iran.


Abstract — Formalin is one of the important fixator in fish studies, and has many effects on morphological indices of fishes, so in this study the effect of this fixation was examined. Thepresent study was done to investigate the effects of fixing and preserving in 10% formalin on the morphological characteristics of goldfish (Carassiusauratus). For this aim, 30 specimens of goldfish were collected from the Researches Center of Aquaculture, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran. After initial evaluation on morphological characters such as Total Length (TL), StandardLength (ST) and Head Length (HL), samples were fixed and preserved in 10% w/v formalin for 11 weeks. After this period, samples were removed from formalin and measurement and evaluation of color features were done once again. The results showed shrinkage was common in all of the specimens and changes in body color were clearly distinguishable with fresh fish such a way that the body and fins color were opaque but color pattern is acceptable but the intensity is reduced.

KeywordsFormalin, Carassiusauratus, Morphological characteristics, Fixation




Simulation of Heavy Metal Removal by α-Keratin Nano-Structure of Human Hair from Environment

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 31-35 | [Full Text] PDF (145 KB)


Leila Mahdavian


Department of Chemistry, Doroud Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box: 133. Doroud. Iran.


Abstract  Including heavy metals are environmental pollutants that human exposure through some of their water and food poisoning can be acute and chronic and sometimes dangerous to establish. Lead can enter the human body and animals by entering the food chain through the feeding and breathing polluted air and they will cause poisoning. In this study, keratin fibers nano-structure is used for Pb2+ removal from environment. The keratin fibers using are low cost related to other methods. The interaction of them is simulated and the ab intio calculations at the density function level of theory (DFT) showed energy and thermodynamic properties changing for this interaction. The cystine in α-keratin is simulated and calculated approached to Pb ions in different distances. There is disulfide bond (-SS-) in cystine, for cation ions adsorbed in hair human fibers. The results shown this method is exothermic, spontaneous and favourable for heavy metals in environment.

Keywords Heavy Metal, α-Keratin, Cystine, Simulation, DFT Method, Environmental.



Geophysical Exploration Studies of Additional Structures of Phase 12 of South Pars Gas (Tombak Region)

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 36-49 | [Full Text] PDF (4330 KB)


Alireza Ashofteh and Sharareh Haj Ali

Young Researchers and Elite Club, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran,

Master of Geology Tectonics, Islamic Azad University North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran,



Abstract — South pars gas complex, phase 12 is located in south of Iran, about 17km east of Kangan, Busheher province. In this study 6 seismic refraction profiles with refraction method have been taken. Down-hole seismic profiles have been taken in 4 drilled boreholes (down-hole) for determining P-wave and S-wave velocity and 22 electrical resistivity sounding have been taken for determining geological condition of layers. Also points with Schulmberger-Weener array have been taken.


Keywords Geophysical Exploration, South Pars Gas, Structure, Tombak.



Extraction and preliminary characterization of bioactive molecules produced by a new Streptomyces strain

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 50-55 | [Full Text] PDF (432 KB) 


El Arbi Boussaber1, Sidi Brahim Salem EL Idrissi1,2, Issam Meftah Kadmiri1,3, Lahoucine Hilali1 and Abderraouf Hilali1,4

1- Laboratory of Agrofood and Health, University Hassan I, Faculty of Science and Technics. BP: 577, Settat, Morocco

2- Laboratory of polymers, radiation and environment, University Ibn Tofail, Faculty of Science, Kenitra, Morocco

3- Biotechnology unit, Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research Rabat, Morocco

4- Higher institute of Health Sciences - University complex, Road Casa, BP: 539, Settat, Morocco.



Abstract  The aim of this study was the description of a new streptomyces strain (SP13'), isolated from pottery discharge samples of Boujad region in Morocco. The strain showed interesting antagonistic activity against various test microorganisms. The bioactive metabolites were extracted from both mycelia and culture supernatant of the strain SP13’ with n-butanol, ethanol, methanol, hexane, acetone, dichloromethane and chloroforme. The extracts activity was evaluated against two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Bacillus subtilis), two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae), two filamentous fungi (Rhizomucor sp. Penicillium expansum) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The nature of the active extracts was determined by UV spectrophotometry technique. Stability of antimicrobial activity of active extracts was tested by conventional methods according to pH, temperature and light. UV spectra of extracts have shown that the antimicrobial metabolites were a non-polyenic nature. They were not thermostable and there was no significant loss of the antimicrobial activity after treatment with various other factors (pH, light, duration freezing).



KeywordsNon-polyene, stability, biological activity, Streptomyces crystallinus, pottery discharge.



Evaluation of behavior factors converged crossover braced frames under triangular loading pattern

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 56-59 | [Full Text] PDF (244 KB) 


Vahid Chegeni1, Mohammad Reza Baradaran2, Babak Mansouri2

1-M.Sc, Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, kerman, Iran.

2-  Department of Civil Engineering, Meymand Center, Islamic Azad University, Meymand, Iran.


Abstract — The lateral load distribution pattern reflects the distribution of lateral inertial forces applied to the structure caused by the earthquake. Inertial forces caused by earthquakes with time changes and dynamic characteristics of the building are subject to change. But in the non-linear static analysis in order to avoid the complexity of this method, forces during analysis are considered constant. Hence analysis and design codes suggest different lateral load patterns to minimize the impact of this unrealistic simplicity. Pushover analysis is of non-linear static analysis methods that can be used to obtain structural capacity curve. Effective factors in determining the capacity curve of the structure is the lateral load distribution. This paper examines the triangular lateral load pattern in structures with convergent bracing previously placed under linear static analysis and a three-dimensional frame structure as an example was analyzed in the SAP2000 software. Therefore pushover analysis was performed on the several frames with convergent crossover braces (with 3,5,7,10,15 number of floors) and extra strength values, ductility and behavior factor is obtained and he results are compared with a nonlinear time history dynamic analysis. Also effect of the parameters affecting the rate of behavior such as, Iranian and American sections of beams and columns, double stud sections, will be examined for braces.


Keywords Force reduction factor, behavior coefficient, nonlinear static analysis, the triangular load patterns, convergent braces





Generating Functions for (P1^r)(n) and (P2^r)(n)

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 60-62 | [Full Text] PDF (259 KB)   


Sabuj Das1, Haradhan Kumar Mohajan2*

1-Senior Lecturer, Department of Mathematics. Raozan University College, Bangladesh.

2-Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.



Abstract — In 1970 George E. Andrews defined the generating functions for (P1^r)(n) and (P2^r)(n). In this article these generating functions are discussed elaborately. This paper shows how to prove the theorem (P2^r)(n)= (P3^r)(n) with a numerical example when n = 9 and r = 2. In 1966 Andrews defined the terms A’(n) and B’(n), but this paper proves the remark A’(n) = B’(n) with the help of an example when n = 10. In 1961 N. Bourbaki defined the term P(n, m). This paper shows how to prove a Remark in terms of P(n, m), where P(n, m) is the number of partitions of the type of enumerated by (P3^r)(n) with the further restrictions that b1 2m. 


Keywords Generating functions, number of partitions.



Optimal Design of Water Distribution Networks Applying Pattern Search Algorithm with Fuzzy Parameters

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 63-70 | [Full Text] PDF (165 KB)   


Mohammad Kangazian1, Amid Hadi1, 2, Mohammad Javad Hashemi1, 2

1- Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.

2- Member facticity of Civil and Environment Engineering, Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.


Abstract Water distribution network optimization has been among the most significant issues that scientists have ever regarded it highly and have done their best to cut the expenses by taking hydraulic constraints into consideration. Accordingly, regardless of the uncertainty in the parameters of network design, optimization seems something unreal. Regarding the attempts made by other scientists to simulate the uncertainties in different systems; in this study, the Fuzzy method is used to model uncertainty in fuzzy uncertainty. Also, the Pattern Search of algorithm is used for optimizing water distribution network devices. By considering Friction coefficient in Darcy-Weisbach equation, a demand in nodes, and tank head as independent fuzzy parameters we can study cost variations, heads in nodes, velocity, and discharge pipes which are known as dependent fuzzy parameters.


Keywords Optimization, Fuzzy parameter, Pattern of search, Water distribution network



Field Investigation of Metro Rolling Noise

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages: 71-76 | [Full Text] PDF (430 KB) 


Javad Sadeghi1, Araz Hasheminezhad2*

1- Centre of Excellence in Railway Transportation,

2- M.Sc of Railway Engineering, School of Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, 16844, Tehran, Iran.


Abstract — This paper presents a field study on railway noise measurement in a tight curve and a tangent track of Tehran Metro Network in Iran. Nowadays as railway and metro tracks often pass through densely populated areas, especially in central parts of big cities, noise is usually the most common reason given for objecting to railway developments. As a result, significant progress has been made in noise control over the last decades. More recently, high interest was given to measuring railway noise and understanding the different sources contributions in order to help reducing global external noise. In this research, sections of Tehran Metro Network, which are located near a high resident people density area with a limited but significant traffic, were selected. In these sections, railway noise seemed to have been tolerated in the past, but is today increasingly being considered as a nuisance for the residents. Noise generated by the railway vehicle was recorded by field tests based on the acoustic standard ISO 3095. Measured noise levels in two different test sections including the tangent track and the curve have been evaluated and compared. Furthermore, metro rolling noise has been detected and separated using band-pass filtering.


KeywordsField Tests, Noise Sources, Rolling noise







Copyright © Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

Dorma Trading, Est. Publishing Manager