Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)

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Volume 1, Issue 4, (2013)

 

Table of Contents

 

Testing of Some Halophytic Plants for Forage, Biofuel Production and Soil Bioremediation

Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages: 183-189 | [Full Text] PDF (375 KB)

 

Medhat Mekhail Tawfik1, Maha Mounir Tawfik2, Ebtihal Mohamed Abd Elhamid3, Mirvat Esmail Gobarah1 and Magda Mohamed Hassanein1

1- Field Crops Research Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

2- Crop Technology Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agriculture Research Centre. Giza, Egypt.

3- Botany Department. National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

 

Abstract — Rapid population growth in the developing countries of arid and semiarid regions and concomitant decline in productivity of agricultural lands due to the negative impact of climate changes, shortage of good-quality irrigation water and increasing soil salinity, are exerting enormous pressure on the dwindling supplies of human consumption for forage, food and fuels. Biosaline agriculture is a proper solution in this saline environment. It can facilitate the adaptation to the increasing salinization and decreasing availability of fresh water. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, a Field trial was carried out in salt affected soil around the Coast of Qaron Lake to evaluate the impact of irrigation with diluted saline lake water (12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 62.5, 75, 87.5 and 100% ) in addition to Fresh water, on total fresh productivity, chlorophyll a + b, proline, soluble carbohydrates, succulence, osmotic potential, nutritional value and the content of cellulose and hemi-cellulose of these halophytic forage plants for biofuel production as well as its role in bioremediation of  the salt affected soil. All tested plants tolerated harvesting eight times per year and were capable of recovering and maintaining a fresh productive biomass up to 10.11 ton fed−1year−1. The value of crude protein varied between 11.03 to 11.45 %. It also contains cellulose and hemicelluloses varied between 21.65 to 28.64% , these cellulosic biomass can use for ethanol production. Successive cuttings of these halophytic plants improve soil quality. Leptochloa fusca followed with Sparina patents were more effective for soil bioreclaimation. In conclusion we can call these halophytic plants (Environmentally Smart Crops) because it did not compete with conventional food crops resources (arable land valid food crops production, fresh water) and produce new crops valid to be used as forage or fuel in salt affected habitats.

 

 

Keywords Halophytic plants, saline habitats, forage production, biofuel, soil bioremediation.

 

 

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of China

Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages: 190-202 | [Full Text] PDF (324 KB)

 

Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh

 

Abstract — Every nation of the world confirms that human-related greenhouse gas emissions are the major driver of the present global climate change. About 20% populations of the world live in China and the emissions of greenhouse gases of it are very high due to the large population, inefficient capital investment, heavy reliance on coal and inefficient planed urbanization. China is now the second largest economy in the world, behind the USA but at present it is facing severe environmental problems from its rapid economic growth. With the rapid economic growth in China, the transportation sector is also growing rapidly, consequently increasing greenhouse gas emissions due to over burning fossil fuels. China is the world’s greatest coal producer and accounts for about 28% of the world’s total annual coal production. China is also the world’s greatest coal consumer, accounting for more than 26% of the world’s total annual coal consumption. Experts from Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning and Policy Research Center of State Environmental Protection Administration have taken various steps to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Scientists expressed that global warming and climate change is due to increase of greenhouse gas emissions. Hence the over greenhouse gas emissions of China is not only affecting its environment but also is contributing to the global warming. This paper emphasizes on the environment pollution and climate change and recommended to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

 

Keywords Chinese economy, Climate change, Coal and oil consumption, Greenhouse gas emissions.

 

 

Optimization of experimental parameters for the determination of amoxicillin by sensitive spectrophotometric method using synthesized gold nanoparticles

Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages: 203-207 | [Full Text] PDF (272 KB)

 

Jafar Abolhasani1*, Elham Motallebpour Sangestany1, Behrouz Vahid2

1- Department of Chemistry, Tabriz branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

2- Department of Chemical Engineering, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

 

Abstract — In this study, a sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method has been developed for determination of amoxicillin (AMX) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthetized by chemical reduction method. This method is based on addition of AMX to AuNPs and nanoparticles aggregation, consequently absorption band of nanoparticles decreased. The optimization of experimental variables was investigated by examining pH, temperature, buffer type and amount, AMX and AuNPs amounts and process time. In the desired condition, the linear calibration graph in the range of 10-250 µg/l was obtained with proper correlation coefficient (R2=0.99). Limit of detection (LOD) and relative standard deviation (RSD %) were calculated as 0.12 µg/l and 0.61%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the AMX measurement in pharmaceutical, real water and biological samples.

 

Keywords Spectrophotometry, Amoxicillin, Gold Nanoparticles

 

 

Anti-Nutritional/Nutritional Analysis and Anti-Microbial Investigation of the Ethanol Extract of the Stem Bark of Leptadenia Hastata (Asclepiadaceae)

Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages: 208-212 | [Full Text] PDF (271 KB)

 

M. E. Khan*, I Hanatu

Department of Chemistry Adamawa State University Mubi, P. M. B. 25 Mubi, Nigeria.

 

Abstract —The work seeks to determine the nutritional / anti-nutritional profile and ascertain the folkloric potential and the societal usage and value / properties of Leptadenia hastate. Leptadenia hastata (Asclepiadaceae) stem - bark extracted with 95% ethanol, showed presence of anti-nutrients; phytate and oxalate content less than is nutritionally significant, with traces of tannins while rich in protein and fats but low in ash. The anti-microbial activity of the extract using agar diffusion method showed zones of inhibition (mm) against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria;  Streptococcus pyogens (12.00±01),Staphylococcus aureus (12.00±01), Escherichia coli, (6.00±0.02) and Shigella dysentrerae (11.00±0.01), respectively. The mineral concentration indicated [in mg / kg), Cu, 0.088, Mn, 0.173, Fe, .0275, Mg, 1.96 and Pb, 0.002; therefore justifies the use of the plant in folklore medicine in North Eastern Nigeria for treatment of such diseases, as ear infection, blood replenishing, constipation, urethral discharge, gonorrhea, stomachache, diarrhea, against milk drying, sexual-impotence, trypanosomiasis, acute rhinopharyngitis, wound and as folder for ruminants. It thus attests to the efficacy of the plant on the management of local ailments and its inclusion in the preparation of local drugs for the above diseases.

 

KeywordsLeptadnia hastata (Asclepiadaceae), anti-nutrients, anti-microbial, mineral concentration.

 

 

Direct determination of ethanol in drinks based on fluorescence quenching of thioglycolicacid (TGA) capped cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantumdots (QDs)

Volume 1, Issue 4, Pages: 213-216 | [Full Text] PDF (140 KB)

 

Jafar Abolhasani*, Ebrahim Ghorbani-Kalhor, Javad Hassanzadeh, Seyedeh Batool Hoseini

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran.

 

Abstract — In this study a simple and very sensitive method was proposed for determination of trace amounts of ethanol in drinks based on fluorescence quenching of thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs). The quenching mechanism is attributed to the non-radiative recombination due to the esterification reaction that occurs between ethanol and carboxylic group of TGA. The determination of ethanol was carried out in samples by recording the emission fluorescence intensity at555 nm (lex= 427 nm). Under optimum conditions a wide linear dynamic rang was obtained between 9.2 × 10-2 and 9.2ng/l for ethanol. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ethanol in real samples including white wine; red wine and Delester drink (Iranian beer).

 

Keywords Ethanol determination; Thioglycolic acid; Cadmium sulfide (CdS); Quantum dots; fluorescence quenching;

 

 

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