Journal of Environmental Treatment Techniques (JETT)


Volume 1, Issue 3, (2013)


Table of Contents


Reduction of COD in Resin Production Wastewater Using Three Types of Activated Carbon

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 126-136 | [Full Text] PDF (611 KB)


F. M. S. E. El-Dars1*, M. H. M. Bakr1, Adel M. E. Gabre2

1- Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt

2- Head of Paint R&D and Head of Quality Assurance and Environmental Affairs, El Obour Paint and Chemicals Factory (Pachin), Al Obour City, Egypt.


Abstract In this work, the efficiency of activated carbon derived from carbonized date pits (ADP) and rice husks (ARH) was compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC) for the reduction of COD in wastewater arising from resin manufacturing plant. The process was studied in batch mode with employing different absorbents optimizing various parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, contact time and pH. Adsorption equilibrium and kinetic data were determined for the three adsorbents and were fitted to several isotherm and kinetic models accordingly. The results indicated that a maximum COD reduction of 92.4% was obtained at pH 2 using 30 g/L CAC, 90.3% using 40g/L ADP and 88.9% using 60 g/L ARH. Kinetically, the results data showed that reduction of COD onto the three adsorbents was better fitted to pseudo second-order model. Equilibrium adsorption data for the reduction of COD effluent using CAC, ADP and ARH were best fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model.


Keywords COD Reduction, Low Cost Adsorbents, Resin Wastewater Treatment



Monitoring the Area and Distribution of Mangrove Forests in the Southern Coasts of Iran

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 137-146 | [Full Text] PDF (394 KB)


Alireza Salehipour Milani1*, Razyeh Lak2, Mansour Jafar Beiglu3

1- Marine Geology Management, Geological Survey of Iran, Meraj St. Azadi Sq. Tehran, Iran

2- Research Institute for Earth Science, Geological Survey of Iran, Meraj St. Azadi Sq. Tehran, Iran

3- University of Tehran, Faculty of Geography, Vesale Shirazi St. Enghelab St. Tehran, Iran


Abstract Mangrove forests in Iran begin from the easternmost part of the border in the Oman Sea ( Gwatre  Bay) and continue to the western parts of the Persian Gulf ending  in  Dayer  (Bushehr Province). Mangrove ecosystems areas have sensitive habitats that are not only important in terms of purpose and protection but also because of the function of their irreplaceable values which have also been the focus of Biodiversity Convention. Mangrove ecosystems are susceptible to environmental stresses. Globally mangrove forests are decreasing by 1 to 2 percent annually. Mangroves in Iran which are preserved by Environmental Protection Organization include 4 International Wetlands, 1 Coast National Park, 8 protected areas, and one Biosphere Reserve. This study attempts to assess the area, distribution and changes in mangrove forests in the southern coasts of Iran During 37 year period (1973-2010) using an integrative method of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Landsat (MSS, TM, and ETM+). This Research could be used as a model for future Mangrove planning in landscape management in Iran. The results of this study determined the changes in extent of mangrove forests in Iran and showing 66.1% increase from 1973 to 2010.


Keywords Mangrove, Monitoring, Remote Sensing, Estuary, NDVI, Iranian Coasts



Study on the Water Quality of District Swabi Pakistan

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 147-150 | [Full Text] PDF (501 KB)


 Rahat Ali1, Arshad Ali2, Jamila Begum1, Shahid Iqbal2, Muhammadullah1

1Northern University, Nowshera Cantonment, KPK, Pakistan

2National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad Pakistan


Abstract Arsenic content in water has proven deadly in many areas of Pakistan due to the lack of knowledge in regard to the purification of the content of water. One such area of District Swabi, Pakistan, has been included in the following study where arsenic content can be found in water at an elevated level. Arsenic content of more than 18 ppb was found. The water quality analysis indicate the concentration of pH, color, turbidity, chloride, TDS, nitrates and Total Coliform was observed to be 9.3, 5.5 units, 5.2 NTU, 105 mg/L, 922 mg/L, 2.3 mg/L, and 35 MPN/100mL.  Both lime and alum are the cheapest available options to remove arsenic. Using 08 mg/L of alum can remove more than 55% arsenic and 61% turbidity. Whereas, lime at an optimum concentration of 16 mg/L, can removed more than 51% arsenic and 47% turbidity.


Keywords Drinking water, arsenic, coagulants, alum



Utilization of Olive Kernel Ash in Removal of RB19 from Synthetic Textile Wastewater

 Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 150-156 | [Full Text] PDF (209 KB)


Behzad Jamshidi1, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush2, Mahboobeh Dehvari3

1- Master of Science Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. 

2- Professor, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical  Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

3- Senior Research Associate in the Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.


Abstract The colored wastewater of textile industries has toxic and stable material in the environment. Several methods for removal of synthetic dyes was investigated that adsorption is most effective between these methods. This study was performed experimentally and in laboratory scale. The adsorption capacity of dye is related to pH of solutions, initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose and contact time. The concentrations of dye were determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 592nm. To analyze the equilibrium data was used from the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms models and pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetics models. The results indicated that the increase in adsorbent dose led to increasing of the removal efficiency. According to the results, adsorption efficiency was increased with decreasing of pH and increase in reaction time. Increasing of initial dye concentration from 10 to 50 mg/L in present of 0.5g/100mL of adsorbent, pH=4 and at contact time of 180 min led to decrease of removal efficiency from 96% to 93.7%. In addition, the Langmuir isotherm model had good fit with obtained results. The adsorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The results show that the olive kernel ash is a natural and cheap adsorbent that can be used for the removal of reactive blue 19 dye from textile wastewater. In addition we can utilize of this sorbent for other organic pollutants.


Keywords Desertification, surface adsorption, olive kernel ash, reactive blue 19 dye, isotherms, kinetics, textile wastewater.




Friedmann, Robertson-Walker (FRW) Models in Cosmology

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 158-164 | [Full Text] PDF (232 KB)                             


Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Abstract Friedmann, Robertson-Walker (FRW) models are established on the basis of the assumption that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic in all epochs. Even though the universe is clearly inhomogeneous at the local scales of stars and cluster of stars, it is generally argued that an overall homogeneity will be achieved only at a large enough scale of about 14 billion light years. According to the FRW models, the universe has an encompassing space-time singularity at a finite time in the past. This curvature singularity is called the big bang. FRW singularity must be interpreted as the catastrophic event from which the entire universe emerged, where all the known laws of physics and mathematics breakdown in such a way that we cannot know what was happened during and before the big bang singularity. In these models the three-space is flat and are of positive and negative constant curvature; which incorporate the closed and open FRW models respectively. In this paper an attempt has been made to describe the FRW models with easier mathematical calculations, physical interpretations and diagrams where necessary.



Keywords Big bang, FRW models, Homogeneous and isotropic universe, Hubble constant.


Sedimentology and Sedimentary Environment of Mobarak Formation in Haraz area Mobarakabad village, Iran

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 165-167 | [Full Text] PDF (343 KB)


Ghodratollah Mohammadi1*, Mehran Gholinejad2, Alireza Ashofteh3

1- Exploration Department, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran.

2- Exploration Department, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran.

3- M.Sc. Mining Engineering, Exploration Department, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran branch, Tehran, Iran.


Abstract In this study, facies and depositional environment of Mobarak formation in central Alburz particularly in Haraz area near Mobarakabad village are studied. This section consists of shale, sandstone, limestone, and dolomite, lower carboniferous in age. Based on field and microscopic investigations, the said section includes seven carbonates, and two clastic facies. These groups of facies were deposited in an open marine, bar, lagoon, and tidal flat sub-environments, related to a carbonate ramp platform.


Keywords Mobarak Formation, Facies, Sedimentary Environment, Lower Carboniferous, Haraz Area



Evaluating the Post-Disaster Situation A Case Study of Pakistan

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 168-173 | [Full Text] PDF (150 KB)


Tariq Husain Murredi, Arshad Ali*

National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan


Abstract The paper enumerates the extent of damages caused to human life, infrastructures and environments. More emphasis has been made on the post earthquake 2005 scenario of Pakistan. The efforts on the part of the government for establishment of suitable organizational structural and campaign to muster resources and successful response and early relief operations are discussed at length. Then the paper focuses on importance and mechanism of Monitoring and Evaluation during re-construction phase of the disaster management. Multi-tiered monitoring, data management and analysis of various sectors including rural housing reconstruction, livelihood, social protection, health, education and WATSAN (Water and Sanitation) have been discussed. Cross cutting themes like Disaster Risk Reduction, environmental safeguards and gender equality were kept in mind while under-taking re-construction processes.


Keywords Disaster, earthquake, reconstruction, evaluation.              


Determination of Some Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Sediment of Artisanal Gold Local Mining Site of Abare Area in Nigeria.

Volume 1, Issue 3, Pages: 174-182 | [Full Text] PDF (325 KB)


 I. Muhammad1*, S. Ashiru2, I. Ibrahim D.2, K. Salawu1, D. Muhammad T.1, N. Muhammad A.2

1- Department of Chemistry, Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Pmb 1002, Maru, Zamfara State, Nigeria.

2- Department of Biology, Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Pmb 1002, Maru, Zamfara State, Nigeria.


Abstract Wastewater  and sediment   samples from Abare artisanal gold mining and processing   site Zamfara, Nigeria were analyzed for Lead (Pb),  Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu),  and Iron (Fe). The average values (ppm) of  Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Fe in the Wastewater   and sediment samples are,   0.832, and   1733.031 for Pb,     7.278, and 2.540 for Hg, 0.004, and 0.005 for Cd,  0.0001, and 2.277  for Cr,  0.062, and 45.908  for Cu, 45.908, and 1024.459 for Fe respectively. Evidence of contamination of the study area by these elements was obvious when compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for portable water, as well as United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard for heavy metals in soil.  Given the reality of extreme poverty in Zamfara State, stopping mining operations without an alternative source of income is not realistic. It was recommended that, focus should instead be placed on informing about and implementing safer mining practices; enacting stronger regulation; and establishing areas outside of villages where ore could be securely stored and safely processed without posing significant threats to human health and the environment.


Keywords Gold mining, Environmental and negative effect of gold mining, Heavy metals, Lead poison in Zamfara state.





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